LECTURE SERIES.

Project Description

 

  • Year 2008 Lecture delivered on 3rd January, 2009 – Millennium Development Goals and National Food Security: Challenges and Possibilities by Isaac Adebayo Adeyemi

Vice – Chancellor, Bells University of Technology, Ota & National President Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology

Millennium Development Goals and National Food Security: Challenges and Possibilities

 Prof. Isaac Adebayo Adeyemi

Vice – Chancellor

Bells University of Technology, Ota

&

National President

Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology

A Lecture Delivered at the 

Oluyole Club End of Year Party / Bursary Awards, Held on Saturday,
3rd January, 2009 at Kakanfo Inn,
Ring Road, Ibadan

 Millennium Development Goals  (MDGs)

  • Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are an ambitious agenda for reducing poverty and improving lives that world leaders agreed on at the Millennium summit in September 2000.
  • For each goal, one or more targets have been set, most for 2015.
No. MDGs 7-POINT AGENDA
1 Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Power and Energy
2 Achieve Universal Primary Education Food Security and Agriculture
3 Promote Gender Equality Wealth Creation
4 Reduce Child Mortality Mass Transportation
5 Improve Maternal Health Land Reforms
6 Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases Security
7 Ensure Environmental Sustainability Qualitative and Functional Education
8 Develop a Global Partnership for Development

Food Security

Food Security refers to the availability of food and one’s access to it. A household is considered food secure when its occupants do not live in hunger or fear of starvation.

Two commonly used definitions of food security come from the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA):

Food Security exists when all people, at all times, have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life (FAO)

Food Security for a household means access by all members at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life. Food Security includes at a minimum:

  • the ready availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods and
  • an assured ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways (that is, without resorting to emergency food supplies, scavenging, stealing or other coping strategy (USDA).

 INTERPLAY BETWEEN MDGs AND FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY

MDG 1: Eradication of extreme hunger and poverty

  • Hunger, and the malnourishment that accompanies it, prevents poor people from escaping poverty because it diminishes their ability to learn, work, and care for themselves and their family members.
  • If left unaddressed, hunger sets in motion an array of outcomes that perpetuates malnutrition, reduces the ability of adults to work and to give birth to healthy children, and erodes children’s ability to learn and lead productive, healthy, and happy lives.
  • This truncation of human development undermines a country’s potential for economic development – for generations to come.

MDG 2: Universal Primary Education

  • Education is crucial to both human and economic development.
  • Feeding children in school has paid significant educational dividends.
  • A school feeding in Bangladesh, for instance, has resulted in a 35% overall increase in enrollment (and a remarkable 44% increase in girls) in comparison with only a 7% increase in schools where the program was not available.
  • Similar improvements in school enrollment, attendance, and retention rates have been observed in a number of other education-supporting food programs in the developing world.
  • The scaling up of such programs in many developing countries would go a long way toward simultaneously achieving the MDGs.

 Linkage Between Education and Agriculture

There are further favourable linkages between education and agriculture.

By raising incomes and allowing farmers to hire labor or invest in labor-saving agricultural technologies, raising agricultural productivity will enable rural parents to send their children to school.

  • Agriculture led-economic growth will also have a broader impact by creating non-farm jobs in food-related industries for the skilled and educated.
  • As it develops, farmers will produce more high-value products, including animal products such as milk, thereby increasing the demand for skilled labour in this sector because these products have specialized production and marketing requirements.

 MDG 3: Promotion of Gender Equality and Empower Women

  • Many women are farmers. But unlike men, who have greater opportunities for non-agricultural work, women depend mainly on agriculture to secure food or earn money for their families.
  • Improvement in agriculture, therefore, can contribute in a fundamental way to increasing incomes and economically empowering women.
  • What’s more, improvements in labour-saving technologies in agriculture that reduce the number of hours worked and enhance income per each hour of work will free-up women’s time, benefiting them and allowing them more time for child care.
  • More time away from farming would also allow women the option of choosing skilled work in the non-agricultural sector.

MDG 4: Reduction in child mortality

  • The links between food production and child mortality are indirect but important.
  • About half of all child deaths occur because of malnutrition, which prevents children from fighting off even common childhood ailments.
  • Mildly underweight children are twice as likely to die prematurely as children who are moderately or severely malnourished.
  • The absence of essential micronutrients further exacerbates poor children’s vulnerability to disease.
  • Ultimately, the problem of child mortality is a result of some combination of poor living conditions, including a deficient diet, and the quality of and accessibility to the health system.

MDG 5: Improvement in maternal health

  • Agriculture can benefit maternal health directly, by improving the quality of women’s diets.
  • Both the quality and the quantity of food available to women affect their health, and the impact of malnutrition on reproductive health is well documented.
  • Women whose immune systems are weakened because of insufficient food intake have a higher likelihood of infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes.
  • Maternal health also depends on having achieved food security in girlhood, well before conception.
  • Improving food and nutrition security for poor households and ensuring that households allocate food equitably are critical steps in improving maternal health.

MDG 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases

  • Agriculture and, food & nutrition security play important but still underrated roles in addressing HIV/AIDS.
  • Without proper food and nutrition, people living with HIV will transit to AIDS more rapidly, because individuals with HIV require up to 50% more calories than healthy individuals.
  • Similarly, infected pregnant mothers are more likely to transmit the disease to children who are food insecure.
  • In addition to direct links between diet quality and the severity of the illness, poverty and HIV/AIDS are closely correlated.
  • People in marginalized groups are more vulnerable to the disease because of their limited access to coping mechanisms such as social networks and the sale of assets.
  • The incidence of tuberculosis is also associated with malnutrition and poverty.
  • People who lack appropriate diets and access to essential micronutrients, such as iron, vitamin D, and zinc, are more likely both to contract TB and to progress faster from infection to active TB and early death.

MDG 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability

  • Many food production practices that push productivity tend to do so at the expense of the environment.
  • Pressures to increase food production with inappropriate policies in the past have resulted in soil degradation, greater concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, marine pollution, overexploitation of fisheries, and loss of valuable habitats.
  • In addition, various market failures in agriculture have been known to contribute to environmental deterioration.
  • Some of the most prominent examples have to do with overexploitation of natural resources where property rights are not clearly assigned and where subsidies encourage malpractice in resource management.

MDG 8: Development of a global partnership for development.

  • The final MDG attempts to capture this need and has many different targets.
  • One of these involves creating jobs for young people.
  • Jobs in rural areas and small towns are particularly important, and the economic, political and institutional conditions that facilitate food production development can make a strong contribution here.

 Performance of MDGs in Nigeria (2007)

MDG Status
1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Insufficient Information
2 Achieve Universal primary education Very likely to be achieved, on track
3 Promote gender equality and empowerment Possible to achieve if some changes are made
4 Reduce Child mortality Insufficient Information
5 Improve Maternal health Insufficient Information
6 Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria  and other disease Possible to change if some changes are made
7 Ensure environmental sustainability Insufficient Information
8 Develop a global Partnership for development Insufficient Information

FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have estimated that almost 200 million Africans were undernourished at the dawn of the millennium, compared with 133 million 20 years earlier (FAO, 2002).

The rate of increase in undernourishment in Africa vastly exceeds that of other developing regions.

About 33 percent of people in sub-Saharan Africa are undernourished, compared to about 6 percent in North Africa and 15 percent in Asia (FAO, 2002).

  • More than 60% of the undernourished are in Eastern Africa, with more than half of the populations in Congo Democratic Republic and Mozambique are affected, while Angola, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia show prevalence rates between 40 and 50 percent.
  • Nigeria’s prevalence rate is low, but with our large population, we account for 22 percent of the food insecure in West and Central Africa.

 

(Nzamujo, 2008)

CHALLENGES

(More Questions than Answers?)

  • Do people have enough income to buy food?
  • Enough land to grow their own food?
  • Does the food distribution system deliver food where it is needed?
  • Do people process enough food for storage against scarcity?
  • What are the implications of trends in population growth for future food security?
  • What is being done to regenerate the resource base for food production?
  • What is the situation about food processing as a form of storage?
  • What is the capacity of each community to store food?
  • What are the competing demands?

CONSTRAINTS TO FOOD PRODUCTION

(Adeyemo & Adeyemi, 1984)

“Policy-makers, technocrats, civil servants or administrators and the Nigerian  public will need to have a change of heart about the process of agricultural development conducive to self-sufficiency in food production. The step from small-scale farming to large-scale farming cannot be eliminated or hopped/stepped/jumped or by-passed through a programme of establishing large-scale farms when the country has a population of about 14million  under-developed small-holder farmers. The ghost of national unemployment, convulsion, deprivation and instability arising from existing attitudes is seriously and menacingly haunting the country. Cooperativisation of the National Green Revolution (NGR) appears the best mechanism for attaining the objectives set in this decade.”

(Olayide, 1982)

Yield of Selected Food Crops compared with some Asian Countries

FOOD CROPS
COUNTRIES Cassava Maize Sorghum Rice Millet
Nigerian(State) <15 mt/ha <1.8mt/ha 1.898 mt/ha (Kaduna /Plateau) <2.4 <1.5 mt/ha (only Benue)
Thailand 21 mt/ha 4.2 mt/ha 2.9
Malaysia 3.2 mt/ha 3.3
Indonesia 3.5 mt/ha 4.7
South-East Asia 1.898
China 6.2
Argentina 1.5 mt/ha(National Average)

 

mt – metric ton

ha – hectare

OUTPUT OF SELECTED FOOD CROPS AMONG NIGERIAN STATES

CROPS                                                  MAJOR PRODUCERS

Rice                                                        Niger, Taraba, Benue &Ebonyi

Maize                                                    Niger, Taraba & Borno

Cassava                                                Benue & Kogi

Yam                                                       Niger, Taraba, Benue & Enugu

Millet                                                    Sokoto, Kaduna, Zamfara &  Borno

Cowpea                                               Borno, Zamfara & Kaduna

 

(Eboh, 2008)

Across the states, there are immense water resources potentials waiting  to be tapped for irrigated multiple cropping. 

According to Ngoddy (2005), the five cornerstones of a national strategy to achieve food security are as follows:

  • Efficient and expanding growth of food and agricultural production
  • Employment and income-generating opportunities to enable rural and urban poor to purchase an adequate or improved diet
  • Access to food to ensure that the entire population can satisfy threshold or subsistence food requirements (Availability and affordability)
  • Adequate grain surpluses in reserves, and or reliable trading agreements for protection against bad harvests, national disasters and uncertain world food supplies
  • Population Management Strategies.
  • In achieving the above, therefore there is a need for a change in our agriculture syste

Strategic Development Pentagon for Agricultural Change of Nigeria. (Ngoddy, 2008)

                       the “Songhai Model”

  • In the “Songhai Model”, the product and services created are expected to meet the needs of the rural people, that is, those at the base of the pyramid. This means developing traditional and rural markets
  • “This agriculture is about food production in an efficient and profitable way. But it is also about technology, techniques and innovations. It is about storage, processing, packaging, e.t.c. It is about marketing, financing, training, mentoring and many other things.”

Dynamic Forward and Backward Linkages Between Sectors of the Economy

 

 HOME GARDEN / NEIGHBOURHOOD FARMS

 

FOOD PROFESSIONALISM: NIFST CHARTER

Early legislation of the regulation of the practice of Food Science and Technology Through the passage of the bill on “Registration Council on Food Science & Technology.

This will help to stimulate and harmonize all cottage, micro, small, medium and expected large scale processors of improved traditional and novel products in Nigeria.

‘In the Eye of the Storm’ – Cassava and Rice

Cassava

Commissioning a national farm and agro-industry survey would greatly assist future modelling exercises. Accurate and reliable data would also assist in setting up benchmarks for developing the cassava subsector.

Medium to large scale cassava processing equipment are far between in Nigeria.

Fabrication of user-friendly equipment for cassava processing is desirable.

Rice

Improved production and processing.

FOOD SECURITY – NEED FOR AN EARLY WARNING SYSTEM

  • Zambia and Copper: Development and application of optic fibre in telecommunication
  • Petroleum and biofuels
  • Synthetic products- e.g. Chocolate-flavors

A “PHARAOH” AND A “JOSEPH”

CONCLUSION

The current world economic downturn/meltdown would, no doubt, have a temporary effect on the MDGs and food security, especially in developing countries.

Within the Nigeria context it is imperative that a multidimensional and multidisciplinary approach will be needed in achieving all the goals itemized above.

Needless to say that development of infrastructural facilities and an holistic approach will be required to ensure food security, failing which all attempts at achieving national food security, the seven-point agenda of Mr. President and the objectives of Vision 20-2020 would be a mirage.

THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!

Prof. Isaac Adebayo Adeyemi

Vice – Chancellor

Bells University of Technology, Ota

&

National President

Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology

 

  • Year 2009 Lecture delivered on 9th January, 2010 – Economic Relevance of Ibadanland: Past, Present and Future by Chief T.A. Akinyele, OON, Bobajiro of Ibadanland

OLUYOLE CLUB OF LAGOS LECTURE  ECONOMIC RELEVANCE OF  IBADANLAND

 ECONOMIC RELEVANCE OF IBADANLAND:

PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE:

 Being the 2010 Annual Lecture of the Oluyole Club of Lagos delivered by Chief T.A. Akinyele, OON, Bobajiro of Ibadanland at Kakanfo Inn, Ibadan on 9th January, 2010.

Preamble

I consider it a great honour and privilege to be invited to deliver the 2010 Annual Lecture of the prestigious Oluyole Club of Lagos. Even before I became a Member of the Club in 1980 following my brief sojourn in Lagos, I have always regarded the organization as one of the leading stars in the firmament of socio-cultural associations of Ibadan indigenes anywhere in Nigeria.

Oluyole Club of Nigeria established 41 years ago, in accordance with Article II (a) of its Constitution is committed “to develop and promote cultural, intellectual and social welfare of its members and Ibadan”. In my opinion, the Club has lived up to its bidding and I congratulate the President, Executive and Members of the Union for the exemplary leadership they have shown in the affairs of Ibadanland individually and corporately. The list of the club’s achievements is intimidating but it may suffice to mention a few. I applaud the scholarship scheme designed for brilliant but indigent Ibadan students at all levels, the insurance and welfare schemes for members and the stimulation of intellectual interest in the affairs of Ibadanland culminating in the 1997 Seminar on Ibadan as a result of which a 540- page historical, cultural and socio-economic intellectual compendium entitled ‘IBADAN’ was published. I also wish to recall the massive relief materials donated by the Oluyole Club for victims of the devastating 1980 Ogunpa Flood disaster which effort was unfortunately rebuffed by the State Government then.

 The Topic in Focus

Human beings everywhere including Ibadanland are both beneficiaries and victims of time and history almost simultaneously because the past mingles with the present and the present rolls into the future in a twinkle of the eye. Nevertheless, the past deserves knowledge while the future is a function of our present choices. Therefore we can take meaningful decisions that would prescribe action for the future only on the basis of knowledge about the past. Any dispassionate assessment of the present physical outlook and intrinsic value of Ibadanland would show that things have fallen apart and Ibadanland has become worse off now than it was when Oluyole Club was established in 1968. Ibadanland has become a failed metropolis in backward transition from a beautiful and secure rural settlement to a disoriented conglomeration of urban slum. The reason is not far-fetched. It is because Ibadan’s economic potentials have been seriously neglected, abused and bastardized by indigenes and settlers alike aided by a successive array of inept and short-sighted persons in governance. Majority of members of Oluyole Club who normally live in Lagos suffer from a sense of double jeopardy. The exquisite transformation of your ‘city of abode’, Lagos in the last 1001 days or so has welled up an inestimable patriotic zeal in you that makes you wish that your “city of birth,” Ibadan be so transformed. As the saying goes “If wishes were horses, beggars would ride”! Unfortunately, every day some people are questioning the right of Ibadan to seek to become a sustainable and habitable modern metropolis. Many also doubt the indomitable spirit of Ibadan to soar high. Given my frame of mind which so far is discernible and given the freedom of choice of a topic granted me by the President of Oluyole Club of Lagos, I have decided to caption my discourse as “ECONOMIC RELEVANCE OF IBADANLAND: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE”  

In this lecture, as much as time permits, I intend to carry out a periscopic review of the economic history and geopolitics of Ibadan during the pre-and post colonial era (1893 to 1960) and the fate of Ibadan, post-independence (1960 to date). I will also attempt to analyze the factors responsible for retrogression in Ibadan. Similarly, I will endeavour to capture the impact of the self-efforts of Ibadan locals and their friends to supplement the meager, often reluctant, government economic interventions. It is my intention to cautiously adumbrate the future not from the prism of a futurologist but from the point of view of a public officer whose enthusiasm for the future has been conditioned by the realities of the vagaries of government’s institutional arrangements. However, I intend to conclude on the need for the economic empowerment of the people of Ibadanland especially in its rural sector in order to bring into greater focus the future economic potentials of Ibadanland. I must acknowledge the fact that because of paucity of time, I have had to rely on a restricted number of sources of information. In this connection, I would like to acknowledge the fact I have gained much insight from the historical works of late Oba I.B. Akinyele but more importantly, regarding the political economy of Ibadan, I have planted my feet on the solid foundation provided by Professor Toyin Falola, now of the University of Texas at Austin, who has written more books and papers on Ibadan’s history and economy than any other person, dead or living. The present is still unfolding for the subtle mind to ponder upon while the future is in the limbo of time.

Resume of Ibadan’s Economic History and Geopolitics

Perhaps we need to define some of the key words in the lecture topic if only for the purpose of elucidation. Shorn of the professional jargons, when one refers to an ‘economy’ we are referring to the interplay of the factors of production and the forces of utilization of resources, using equitable system of exchange for the sustainable growth and development of that given entity called a political economy. In this discourse, we are zeroing on the political economy called Ibadanland. Ibadanland or Ibadan Metropolis at present consists of eleven local governments – five urban and six rural/semi-urban with an under-counted population of 2,550,593  according to the unreliable and questionable 2003 Demographic Census of Nigeria broken down as follows:

Fig 1 Population Figures of Local Government Areas in Ibadan land

S/N LGA TOTAL MALE TOTAL FEMALE TOTAL POPULATION  
1. IBADAN NORTH 153,039 153,756 306,795
2. IBADAN N/W 75,311 77,523 152,834
3. IBADAN S/W 139,515 143,070 282,585
4. IBADAN S/E 130,577 135,469 266,046
5. IBADAN N/E 163,625 166,774 330,399 1,338,659
6. EGBEDA 138,298 143,275 281,573
7. IDO 51,750 51,511 103,261
8. LAGELU 74,315 73,642 147,957
9. OLUYOLE 102,220 100,505 202,725
10. ONA-ARA 131,471 133,588 265,059
11. AKINYELE 105,633 105,726 211,359 1,211,934
  1,265,754 1,284,839 2,550,593 2,550,593

 

 NOTE:  Please see Map.

 MAP OF 11 LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN IBADANLAND

I In area, Ibadanland is 2,055.52km2 or 305,552 hectares of land giving an average gross population density per km2 of 14,574 persons in the urban areas and 272 persons in the rural area (as per 1991 calculation) Despite the fact that Ibadanland was as usual seriously undercounted, it represents about 50% of the entire Oyo State and has 33/1/3% of the numbers of Local Government in the State.

It would be impossible to do justice to the subject matter of this lecture without alluding to the history of the Ibadan metropolis, the socio-economic aggregates that have contributed to making Ibadan what it is today, an ever-sprawling megalopolis, having, in several respects, the characteristics of an ancient Greek city-state. History has it that the first settlement which started as a military encampment of marauding soldiers who after capturing this naturally endowed fortress from the original settlers – Egbas and Ijebus – planned its expansion in such a way that between 1820 and 1850, the town could boast of about 100,000 people. By 1870, Ibadan had established the largest empire in the nineteenth century Yourbaland comprising most Oyo – Yoruba towns and villages and areas in the north-east of Yorubaland. It had become a citadel for the brave, a refuge for the weak and oppressed and a terror to any arrogant neighbour. Even in the heydays of the slave trade, it was generally agreed that once a person stepped his foot on Ibadan soil, his freedom became inalienable for as long as he conformed to the idiosyncrasies of the leaders of Ibadan. It was a common parlance to say and sing it loud and clear: Ogun ko ko ‘Badan ri e ma je ki aya o ja. Ibadan established the Ajele system, a politico-economic supervisory system of running the colonies under Ibadan – collecting tributes and levies and ensuring law and order and preventing the emergence of anti –Ibadan sentiments. It can be safely said without equivocation that without the military prowess of Ibadan, there would have been nothing to call Yorubaland. But what are the factors that made Ibadan grow so rapidly and effectively?

Ibadan aptly satisfies Professor Akin Mabogunje’s Functional Specialization Theory of Urbanization. Mabogunje postulated that for sustainable growth, a town must satisfy the following criteria:

(a)     for functional specialization to give rise to urban centres, there must be a surplus food production with which to feed the class of specialists whose activities are now withdrawn from agriculture;

(b)   for this surplus to be made available to the group of specialists, there must be a small group of people who are able to exercise some power over the group of food producers. This class also has to ensure stable and peaceful conditions in which both the food producers and the specialists can produce of their best, and

(c)      for the work of the specialists to be facilitated and their needs for raw materials satisfied, there must be a class of traders and merchants.

In other words, Ibadan satisfies the four main criteria for socio-economic growth which another author summarized as habitability, capability, suitability and developability.

Because of its fortress-like location, well drained by rivers and streams, meandering through a combination of rich forests and luscious grassland, Ibadan provided all the facilities for the growth of a large human settlement. Professor Toyin Falola in his book titled The Political Economy of a Pre-Colonial African State, Ibadan, 1830-1990 has beautifully placed the situation in vivid perspective:

“Besides creating the necessary peace, Ibadan also succeeded in establishing a firm and effective control over a large expanse of land, the most vital means of production. The defeat and expulsion of the Ife and the withdrawal of the Egba meant that the ownership and control of land in this area had been transferred to the Oyo-Yoruba settlers (henceforth referred to as the Ibadan). The Ibadan consolidated their control over the land and also acquired more, by colonizing virgin territories from the 1830’s onwards. The relief, drainage and vegetation of this area have been described by geographers and some of their relevant conclusions are that the area could support a large population and that there are no physiographic barriers to people’s movement”.

Toyin Falola then concluded that “indeed, very rapidly in the 1830’s the city established its politics, built a military machine, and an extensive production system based on the use of slaves and dependent labour”. It is evidently clear from these historical descriptions that several positive characteristics of Ibadan, right from the beginning, had destined it to become contributory to national economic development, rather than consumptive of it as a few misguided persons would like the world to believe. Wars and conquests ensure dominance of the conquerors over the human and material resources of the conquered and, therefore, it can be assumed that waging wars, especially those inter-tribal wars had economic undertones.

It is in the combination of these natural endowments, the well-oriented system of kinship and clientage, an equitable system of government, human freedom and dignity grew to the extent that by 1858 it was necessary to build a new town wall called Ibikunle’s Wall. The new wall which has four main gates measured about 17.6kms in circumference and enclosed an area of approximately 2,240 hectares. Those who know the geography of Ibadan would recall that some remains of that wall can still be found around Agodi, which literally means, “We have scaled the city wall”, Agugu, Inalende, Foko, Kudeti and Elekuro. Beyond this area lies a large expanse of Ibadanland under the control of the same important families who inhabit the city. These outlying areas (some as far as 30kms from the city centre) are generally reserved for farming and hunting and are dotted with villages inhabited by some of the city dwellers who spend short periods on the farms (part-time farmers who have other professions being practised within the city) or by their relations who chose to stay longer periods on the farms only to come to the city during festivities or important family occasions. The indigenes of Ibadan pride themselves in the truism that there is no Ibadan person who belongs to a compound in Ibadan who does not have a village to which he belongs. From the utilization of its land resources emerged a sustainable system of agricultural production through the cultivation of (a) oko ehinkule – backyard farming, (b) oko etile – neighbourhood farming and (c) oko egan – distant farming – producing vegetables, grains, tuber and cash crops respectively. What is most significant about Ibadan’s management of land resources is the republican nature of the government of the city being brought to bear on the land tenure, such that the system did not allow a few people to own, control and exclude others from the land. Apart from land grants to government, permanent disposal of land through sale was a recent development which became accentuated during the late colonial and post-independence era. It is important to understand the peculiarities of Ibadan system that distinguishes it from the general pattern of land tenure system in Yorubaland where in most cases land is held in trust by the Oba. That is why the objectives of the Land Use Decree of 1978 ran against the grain of Ibadan system and it has contributed to the haphazard growth of Ibadan since then.

In summary and for want of time to expatiate one could itemise the characteristics of Ibadan and peculiar attitudes of its people, who have contributed to the phenomenal growth of the metropolis as follows:

  • Ibadan military prowess in building and sustaining an empire,
  • blend of urban and rural populace as the same,
  • toughness and ruggedness of the people,
  • locational nodality
  • vegetational advantage – between forest and savannah,

 

  • adequate water supply,
  • expanse of land,
  • large population,
  • security-physical and psychological,
  • ecological balance,
  • hospitality and accommodating nature of people of Ibadan to strangers and settlers, and

If one were to single out one of these characteristics, one would like to emphasise the economic advantages derivable from locational  nodality. The physical nodality of Ibadan (the city of sixteen gates by itself guarantees free flow of resources – human and material – and that is one of the ingredients of economic growth through trade and commerce. No wonder throughout its history, Ibadan has been an important transitional market and a gateway for the transmission of goods and services between the south and north, between the forest zones and the savannah regions. The uniqueness of trade as a growth strategy lies in the relation of productive activity and real impact on Gross Domestic Product through multiplier effects.

Pre-and Post-Colonial Economic Development of Ibadan (1893 – 1960)

In 1893, the British brokered peace between Ibadan and essentially the rest of Yorubaland and Pax Britannica that ensued had adverse implications for the position of Ibadan in the scheme of things. As an imperial power, Britain could not tolerate the idea of an empire within an empire since it was apprehensive of the unruly and warlike nature of Ibadan and its people. Britain would rather see Ibadan subjugated and placed under the suzerainty of a subservient Alafin, an erstwhile strong potentate but rendered impotent by Ibadan’s military prowess for the purpose of a peaceful administration of Yorubaland. Nevertheless, the economic importance of Ibadan endowed by nature and concretised by military adventurism could not be ignored by the British at a time when industrial revolution was demanding enormous raw materials for British nascent industries and at a time when the slave trade became outlawed to be replaced by legal trade in import and export of goods. To accelerate development in agriculture and cottage industries, land laws were introduced to legalise land transfers and to ensure adherence to physical planning regulations. Agricultural production was encouraged by the colonial government. Three crops – cotton, cocoa and rubber – were the first to become cash crops. Between 1900 and 1910, cotton production was promoted by the British Cotton Growing Association (BCGA) with the encouragement of the colonial government, but the effort failed because of poor soil and unstable market. Cocoa, which was promoted by the Church Missionary Society (CMS) around 1890, was more successful than cotton and later became the dominant export crop. Most of the earliest cocoa planters in Ibadan were either converts or potential Christians. These men (such as Morakinyo, Ogunwole, Okoga, Orukotan, Ogunlana, Obisesan etc.) established new cocoa farms in about twenty-four villages to the south and north-east of the town between 1890 and 1915. Ibadan’s climate and vegetation were conducive for the cultivation of cocoa and abundant labour was available.

And so, by 1913 cocoa had become the number one crop. It remained so until the “swollen shoot disease” of the 1940-1950 ravaged the farms. Incidentally the task of fighting the scourge at various times became the responsibility of three eminent Ibadan agriculturists-TSB Aribisala, J.A. Ayorinde and S.A Amole. The efforts of farmers were further dampened by the disruption of export trade by the Second World War of 1939-1945 and the rural-urban migration that occurred following the emergence of pre-independence  political activities, the civil war of 1967- 1970 and the aftermath of “oil boom” of the 1970’s, leading to complete neglect of agricultural production. During the colonial period, Ibadan won ten agricultural prizes in the Colonial Agricultural Show held in far away Sekondi (Ghana). Later, oil palm, rubber and kolanuts were introduced as cash crops while yam, cassava, etc continue to be grown as food crops in abundant quantities. An agricultural department was established in Ibadan in 1910 to improve agricultural yields, especially cash crops. At the same time, forest resources were being encouraged through the establishment of forest reserves. Rubber-tapping and rubber industry grew between 1893 and 1895 around Onipe and Mamu. From 1899 onwards, forest reserves began to be created by the colonial government to preserve forest resources, such that by 1912, about 300 square miles of Ibadan land had been earmarked as forest reserves.

At this stage, I think it is important to emphasize the fact that funds accumulated from these agricultural and forest resources constituted the bulk of the money of the Western Nigeria Marketing Board with which the socio-economic development of the Western Region was undertaken between 1950 and 1962 culminating in the emergence of Odu’a Investment Company.

In the industrial sector, there was nothing to write home about during the colonial era. This is understandable because of fear of competition with nascent industries in the “home country”. In any event, the direction of colonial policy was to encourage colonies to produce raw materials and not to industrialize.

However, import-export business boomed during the colonial era such that by 1906, the numbers of companies in Ibadan engaged in such business had risen to twenty-four, thirteen British, five German, one French, one Brazilian and four Nigerian. By 1913, they had increased to seventy. Local markets had to respond to the demands of the import-export trade, and business activities continued to boom.

In pursuance of the colonial policy of getting raw materials from the hinterlands to the ports for exportation to Britain, transportation efforts were geared up during the colonial era in and around Ibadan.

By October 1906, Ibadan had been linked with Lagos by a road “wide enough to take a car,” and soon thereafter, Ibadan and its environs had twenty miles of roads. By 1907 a road transport system had started between Ibadan and Oyo. The roads later extended to Ogbomoso, Iseyin and Ife.

Greater attention was given to rails than roads. Railway work began in 1898, reached Abeokuta in 1900 and Ibadan in 1901. The line continued northward, reaching Jebba in 1910. By 1918, a total of £8,670,145 had been expended on railways and a total of 1,110 miles had been constructed. Out of this, the western railways, a three feet by six inches gauge from Lagos to Kano, was 704 miles long.

The British abolished the “cowry” in preference for a new currency in order to make it easier for them to impose a new monetary system. In 1894, coins were introduced – made of nickel and aluminium. By 1904,  importation of cowries was abolished by law. In 1894, the Bank of British West Africa (the precursor of First Bank) was established and its first branch was planted in Ibadan in 1910. A viable customs system existed in Ibadan before the British intervention of 1893, through the introduction of toll collection. The British later abolished the toll system to ensure free flow of trade and customs, gates were closed elsewhere in Yorubaland, but Ibadan was allowed to keep its 16 gates in order to assuage the war-chiefs who felt that they had thus lost the last vestiges of power if customs gates were closed. Similarly, although abolition of slavery took place in 1833, slavery could not be abolished in Ibadan until the ordinance enacted in 1916.

There was a boom in commerce and trade such that by 1918 most European Companies in Lagos such as Miller Bros, P.Z, UAC, John Holt, Gottschalk etc had established branches in Ibadan. A few high-ranking indigenous entrepreneurs emerged to compete with the European and Lebano-Syrians mostly in cocoa, palm kernel, palm oil, kolanuts, timber business and sale of foreign goods. In that category were Abasi Aleshinloye, in the yam flour trade, Salami Agbaje engaged in transport, cocoa and general merchandise becoming the most wealthy Ibadan businessman of the 1920s followed by Adebisi Giwa, Akinpelu Obisesan and David Okeowo (a notable money-lender). Some of them used their wealth to catapault themselves into prominence in local politics and chieftaincy. Others engaged in the service sector as Government and business clerks, public letter writers, railway workers, land speculators, tailors, barbers etc.

The economy of Ibadan was so buoyant and the revenue accruing to Government coffers through taxation system in Ibadan was so substantial that through the coercive arrangement of the British President, Capt. Ross, Ibadan was made to pay half of the salary of the Alafin of Oyo amounting to £4,800 (i.e. £2,400) from 1919 to 1934.

Although his domain contributed the highest revenue to Government coffers, Ibadan Ruler was paid less than the Alafin but even then he was still the second highest paid chief in then Southern Provinces. Christian missionaries had introduced education since 1852 such that by 1927, there were over 70 mission schools in Ibadan Division.

Post – Independence Fate of Ibadan

With the introduction of partisan politics and in the wake of the intense political struggle for independence, the city became the headquarters of a region and the hotbed of cut-throat politics. Prior to Nigeria’s independence in 1960, there had been the effects of the Second World War in which able-bodied persons of Ibadan origin (like other Nigerians) took part at the expense of employment for local development. Secondly, the period witnessed some global economic depression, down-turn in trade and commerce and general shortages of essential commodities and food. To worsen matters, the swollen shoot disease that started to take its toll on the cocoa production and export reached its peak shortly before independence. As a consequence, there was economic retardation and massive rural depopulation. Immigration into the city of Ibadan became less orderly than even the pre-colonial era, the organised systems of kinship and clientage broke down, the farming population trooped to the city in search of money illusion, and the city’s infrastructures could no longer sustain the horde of city plunderers rather than city builders. The end-result is the conglomeration of urban filth, environmental decay and ecological degradation into which, since the mid 1960’s Ibadan has been turned.

Unfortunately, for sinister political reasons, Industries that ought to have been sited in and around Ibadan were taken to Ikeja, Mushin and Isolo which were then part of the Western Region by the Action Group – controlled Regional Government.

Unfortunately, this period of incipient decay coincided with the period of political crisis in the Western Region which beclouded the vision of the leaders of thought at all levels and diverted their energies to less productive pursuits. It must be admitted conscientiously that Ibadan and its problems had never been regarded seriously as matters of top priority in the scheme of things, being managed by successive governments. There is always the feeling in government circles that too much is being spent on Ibadan, forgetting that Ibadanland:

  • was the goose that laid the golden egg in the first instance;
  • constitutes 50 per cent of the population of the present Oyo State;
  • is the single largest concentration of black people the world over;
  • apart from Lagos, accommodates all tribes and ethnic groupings of Nigeria;
  • houses the oldest university in Nigeria;
  • has the largest number of educational institutions in Nigeria;
  • apart from Lagos, has the largest stock of housing, largest number of cars and other vehicles in Nigeria;
  • going by per capita calculations, contributes highest to the GDP of Oyo State.

If I may be permitted to quote four examples of culpable neglect of Ibadan by successive governments, I would refer to:

  • lack of a physical development Master Plan for Ibadan;
  • the Ogunpa Channelisation; and
  • lack of an industrial plan for Ibadan.
  • lack of inter-governmental cooperation for Ibadan’s development epitomized by absence of Federal presence since 1966.

As we all know Ibadan has become one massive slum because of lack of a physical Master Plan for Ibadan beyond the efforts of the colonial masters in the 1950’s. The Ogunpa channelisation scheme which would have provided flood control and aesthetic recreational facilities has been left uncompleted by successive governments since 1977, despite annual budgetary allocations. The most damaging to the future growth of Ibadan is lack of a government plan to provide an industrial base for Ibadan and environs. Ibadan’s fate in the area of industrialization is a veritable case study in the inglorious triumph of senseless politics over common sense economics. Policy thinkers the world over are agreed that industrialization is most desirable as an antidote to over-population which characterizes most urban conglomerations like Ibadan. As available land resources start to shrink relative to an increasing population, the excess labour resources can only be absorbed by development in the industrial sector. This makes a strong case for industrialization as an avenue for economic development. When rational beings (rather than military despots) were in power and the going was good in the 1950’s and early 60’s, those in power neglected the industrialization of Ibadan because of acrimonious politics all to the peril of all of us who must live in Ibadan. Urban poverty, makes 75 per cent of the Ibadan populace stay below the “poverty line”. About 34 per cent of able-bodied persons in Ibadanland are without employment and about the same number is under-employed, leaving the city of Ibadan surfeit with a horde of lay-abouts, miscreants and ne’er-do-wells, reeling in anti-social crimes. As Professor Anya said generally of Nigerians and true of Ibadans, we are three times poorer today than we were thirty years ago. The only thing good about Ibadan is that it has become the quiet dormitory of all Yorubas including retired Governors, top civil servants, barons of commerce and industries, professors, politicians etc.

I should not fail to mention the fact that leaders in government, since 1960’s, have done incalculable damage to the economic fortunes of Ibadan by tampering with the management of its land tenure system. That land system which is at the centre of Ibadan politics and well-being has been bastardized by the Land Use Decree of 1978, and with it, goes the decimation of a big chunk of Ibadan’s fortunes – poverty of land owners, lack of private layouts, and consequential over-concentration of attention to alienation of government land in the G.R.As (Government Reservation Areas), the turning of lawyers into liars and land surveyors into land bandits through the manipulation of land deeds etc. The end-result is the emergence of “glorified slums” everywhere, the big and beautiful mansions sandwiched between the ugly and the slummish tenements. The naturally-endowed ekistic beauty of Ibadan has thus been lost for ever unless there is a plague as in New Delhi or a great fire disaster as in the case of Old London!

Self Effort of Ibadans

As the sayings goes, “self help is best help”. One may therefore ask what Ibadans have done to help Ibadan and themselves, especially in the economic arena. Here again, it has been an uphill task for Ibadan. In order to practice self help, there must exist a conducive environment that guarantees economic empowerment of the people. It must be appreciated that economic power is a product of political power and since the “spirit of Ibadan” seemed to have been poised at being anti-government from colonial period to date, the flow of economic power to Ibadan has been sporadic and insubstantial. The first generation banks, the finance corporation, co-operative unions and other credit-granting institutions were all government controlled, and so, the efforts of Ibadan cannot but be marginal. In spite of the odds, the likes of Salami Agbaje of Ayeye, Akinpelu Obisesan and Okeowo of Aremo, Adebisi Giwa of Idikan were regarded as “Prince Merchants” in colonial records. In the same manner, one must place on record the efforts of modern-day wealthy Ibadans who have surmounted the odds to fill the gaps in industrialization of Ibadan as a result of government neglect. Here, we must recognize the contributions of Chief Bode Akindele in the food, confectionery and beer industry, Chief Bode Amao in carpet and foam industry, Chief Biyi Idowu in automotive spare parts and building materials, Chief Harry Akande in construction and hi-tech, Chief Arisekola Alao in auto and flour industries, Chief M.A. Adetunji in agro-allied and banking, Chief Kola Daisi in banking industry, Chief Layi Balogun in architecture and building industry, Chief Adegoke in auto and rubber industries and Chief Lekan Are in hotel industry. We must add in the list a few non-Ibadans who love Ibadan as much as to invest heavily in its industrialization. I refer to Chief Olu Akinkugbe in the tobacco, pharmaceutical and automotive industries, the Zards in agricultural, construction and food industries and Oba Otudeko in flour milling and banking. Without these private efforts, Ibadan would have been worse off, regarding industrial output to national development.

New Generation Verdict

The new generation and by that I mean the generation of our own children is beginning to ask questions for which our generation must provide answers or stand condemned. Where are the cocoa and oil palm plantations, the farm settlements, the livestock farms and forest reserves within and around Ibadan established during the colonial and pre-independence eras either by Government or by individuals under Government supervision? Where are the forecourts of major compounds and homesteads that provide cool and serene environments for family meetings under the “Odan” trees? With clear evidence of warmer temperatures as a result of the global climate change what are the chances of people in Ibadan escaping the incidence of heat strokes in the next few years with all available vegetation in and around Ibadan giving way to planless urbanization? One member of that generation Mr. Wale Ajadi leading the Omoluwabi Collective Initiative seeking ways and means of causing a regeneration of Ibadan of the 21st century came out with the following verdict:

“Since the Structural Adjustment Programme of the 1980s and its devastating effect on the middle classes the city has been in decline, which has meant losing its younger population to Lagos. With the loss of its unique selling point it has lost inward investment and real estate has fallen far below the Lagos benchmark. Even though, less than 100kms from Lagos the decay in Ibadan is visible in the built environment with every street a mini-market of shacks and unplanned sprawl. As Lagos the commercial capital booms, there is little vision for either a complementary or competitive strategy for a renewal of Metropolitan Ibadan”. This may be the verdict of history that will not exclude me and all of you under the influence of my voice or through other reproductive means of transmission.

Ibadan’s Future Potentials

As a person who, for love of my fatherland, tried my hand at politics up to engaging in gubernatorial primaries in 1982, I should be expected to have my own vision, ideas and ways and means of executing them, but I am conscious of the fact that the question of Ibadan’s future potentials can form the subject of a whole book. Time right now does not permit much expatiation. I have no doubt that in spite of obvious areas of mismanagement through public neglect and private greed, Ibadan still has greater potentials to contribute immensely to the economic development of Nigeria. I am aware of several untapped mineral and natural resources that can still be developed to advantage. More importantly, the indomitable spirit of the people not to go under the debris of neglect is still there to push them ahead. But we need a government that is long in memory and far in sight. We need a government that appreciates that Ibadan as a melting pot of the Yorubas must not be allowed to break. I believe the following measures must be taken to guarantee future growth and development of Ibadan and to make it economically relevant now and in the future:

(a)     establishment of a proper Master Plan to involve the metropolis of Ibadan, i.e. entire Ibadanland;

(b)     the construction of a circular road to link all local government headquarters in Ibadanland and open up the rural areas, and improve traffic flow in the city.

(c)      establishment of industrial base for Ibadan through a well-planned establishment of four new towns (three in addition to Ajoda New Town) spread along the four corners of Ibadanland each with industrial estates and industrial cells; including one Export-Free Zone.

(d)     tackling the unemployment of youth;

(e)      tackling the poverty of the people;

(f)      encouraging better savings and investment attitude of the people

(g)     urgent completion of Ogunpa Channelisation Scheme;

(h)     supporting the demand for the creation of ‘Ibadan State”.

Conclusion

I must apologise for inflicting myself on you and over-taxing your patience, but this is one of the rare occasions when one can speak to an audience with whom you share common identity, hopes and aspirations. My love for Ibadan knows no bounds and so I can speak more, but it is time to conclude. Ibadan built an empire. Ibadan fought colonialism and injustice and our traditional rulers like Orowusi, Opadere, Irefin and Shitu were either deposed or deported by colonial masters for standing up against injustice. Ibadan fought local and foreign wars; Ibadan took and sold slaves. Ibadans traded with Ijebus, Lagosians and Oyinbos; Ibadan labour constructed the western railways; Ibadan struggled in politics and produced the likes of Adelabu and Akinloye. But what have we gained from it all? Do we need to fight for restitution or reparation? I leave that to the next generation to decide.

THE IBADAN ANTHEM

  1. Ibadan ilu ori Oke 3.       Ibadan ilu jagunjagun

Ilu Ibukun Oluwa                                       Awon to so d’ilu nla

K’Oluwa se o nibukun                               Awa omo re ko ni je

Fun onile at’alejo                                        K’ola ati ogo won run

 

Egbe: E ho e yo k’e si gbe rin                    Egbe:          E ho e yo k’e si gberin etc.

Ogo f’Olorun wa l’orun

Ibukun ti Obangiji                                      4.       Mo wo lati ori oke

Wa pelu re wo Ibadan                                Bi ewa re ti dara to

B’odo re ko tile dara

  1. Ibadan ilu to ngbajeji Sibe o la Ibadan ja

Ti ko si gbagbe omo re

K’ife ara wa ko wa nibe                    Egbe: E ho e yo k’e si gberin, etc.

Fun onile at’alejo

  1. Ibadan ilu ori oke

Egbe: E ho,                                                          K’Oluwa se o nibukun,

E yo                                                            Ki gbogbo ‘joye inu re

K’e si gberin, etc.                                        Je elemi gigun fun, wa

 

Egbe: E ho e yo k’e, si g’erin, etc.

 

May God Almighty bless all of us.

 

BOOKS CONSULTED

 

  1. I.B. Akinyele: Outlines of Ibadan History (Lagos, 1946)

Iwe Itan Ibadan ((England 1950 2nd Edition)

 

  1. Toyin Falola: Politics and Economy in Ibadan, 1893 – 1945

Pub. by Modelor Design Aids Ltd. Lagos. 1989

 

  1. Toyin Falola: Economic Reforms and Modernization in Nigeria,

1945 – 1965 Pub. 2004 by the Kent State University Press, Kent, Ohio.

 

  1. Babatunde Oyedeji (ed): Readings in Political Economy and Governance in

Nigeria; Selected Speeches and Articles of Chief T.A. Akinyele, edited by Babatunde Oyedeji. Pub. CSS Ltd, Bookshop House, Broad Street, Lagos, 2002.

 

  1. Ruth Watson: Civil Disorder is the Disease of Ibadan ‘Ija Igboro Larun

Ibadan’ Chieftaincy & Civic Culture in Yoruba City.

Pub. Heineman Educational Books (Nig.) PLC Ibadan 1st Pub. 2003.

 

  1. G.O. Ogunremi (ed), IBADAN, A Historical, Cultural and Socio-Economic

Study of an African City Pub. by Oluyole Club, Lagos First published 2000.

 

  1. Justin Labinjoh: Modernity and Tradition in the Politics of Ibadan.

1900 – 1975 Pub. Fountain Publication, Ibadan, 1991.

 

  • Year 2010 Lecture delivered on 8th January, 2011 – Ibadan Cusmopolitanism, another view by Chief Ajibola Ogunsola

 

  • Year 2011 Lecture delivered on the 11th of February, 2012 – Towards Sustainable Energy Provision in Nigeria by Professor M. A. Salau. (Department of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.

TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE ENERGY PROVISION IN NIGERIA

 By

Prof. A.M. Salau

Department of Physics

Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife

 Presented at the

OLUYOLE ANNUAL LECTURE

Held in Ibadan at Kakanfo Inn, Ibadan

14th January, 2012

 Protocol

It gives me a great pleasure to be before you distinguished sons and daughters of Ibadan land and the highly rated Oluyole Club today to deliver a lecture titled “Towards Sustainable Energy Provision in Nigeria”. I thank you for this unique opportunity.

 TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE ENERGY PROVISION IN NIGERIA

SUMMARY:

The paper discusses the potential of various energy sources – renewable (resources that are continuous and do not change appreciable over million of years) and non-renewable (resources that are limited and therefore faces exhaustion in the nearest future) and their deployment to attain energy security through the provision of additional energy (electricity and non-electrical) by renewable energy technologies in particular. The environmental impacts which limit the extensive utilization of non-renewable fuels but promote that of renewable fuels are highlighted. At the end, recommendations are made on the way forward to improve easy access to energy in Nigeria on a sustainable basis.

INTRODUCTION

Adequate, abundant, cheap and regular energy supply is a goal for every nation in the world to improve the quality of life of its people as energy is central to sustainable development and poverty reduction. This is why UNDP support the sustainable energy provision to reduce half the proportion of population living in poverty by 2015 in line with one of the objective of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in particular MDGI. In the light of this, there exists a tremendous tension between the demand for and the supply of more energy in particular electricity and the protection of the environment and sustainable development in order to achieve a new strategy in which economic strength, environment and sustainable development peacefully co-exist. The choices run from the non-renewables like oil and its products, gas, coal, large-hydro and uranium (a radioactive element with two natural isotopes) to the renewables like solar, wind, biomass, geothermal and mini- and micro-hydro. Table I shows the world fossil fuel reserve.

Table I – World Fossil Fuel Reserves

Country Coal mfc Gas tcf Oil  bb
Nigeria 209 mt 184.00 40
Africa 55,486 485,841.00 109,759
Middle East 462 2,565.400 775,644
Europe 65,762 182.761.00 15,980
USA 276,544 204,385.00 21,757
World Average 997.748 6,226.555 1,119.615

 

They all compete with and complement each other depending on their relative appropriations and economies, in particular applications. These energy sources have the potential of been converted to heat of low and high temperatures as well as to electricity, the form energy, is mainly required for commercial, industrial, transportation and domestic purposes, to improve the quality of life of its people. Therefore, energy, in particular, electricity is a prerequisite for the proper functioning of nearly all the sectors of the economy and thus an essential good and service, whose availability, accessibility, quantity and quality can determine the success or failure of a nations’ sustainable development endeavors.

Therefore, appropriate, useful and usable energy-mix policies and plans must evolve and made compliant with the national economic planning. Their implementation must then be synchronized with that of the other sectors of the economy to enable easy and sustainable access to energy.

This paper discusses briefly the potentials of these various energy sources and their estimated reserves, given, where available as well as their conversion to heat of low and very high temperatures and direct conversion to direct current electricity. Also the environmental impacts which limits the extensive utilization of NRES, but promotes the inclusion of the RES, like solar, wind, biomass and mini- and micro-hydro in the energy-mix of Nigeria are highlighted.

However, emphasis in this paper is primarily on renewable energy relevant to sustainable energy provision to attain energy security through the additional energy (electricity and non-electric) from renewable energy sources.

OVERVIEW OF ENERGY SOURCES

Nigeria is endowed with huge amount of various energy resources, renewable (resources that are continuous and do not change appreciable over million of years) and non-renewable (resources that are limited and therefore faces exhaustion in the nearest future). The renewable energy resources (RES) or non-conventional energy resources include solar, wind, mini- and micro-hydro and biomass. While the non-renewable energy resources (NRES) or conventional energy sources include oil, gas, coal, large-hydro and uranium. Tables II & III show the fossil fuels and renewable energy resources in Nigeria

Table II – Fossil and Nuclear Resources in Nigeria

S/N Resource Type Reserves Production
1 Crude Oil 40 billion barrels 2.5 million barrels/day
2 Natural Gas 187 trillion SCF 6 billion SCF/day
3 Coal and Lignite 2.7 billion tonnes (insignificant)
4 Tar Sands 31 billion barrel of equivalent
5 Nuclear Element Not yet qualified

Table III – Renewable Energy Resource

          Domestic
S/N Resource Type Reserves   Production Utilization
Energy Units (Btoe*) (Natural Units)
1 Hydropower large 11,250MW 0.8 (over 40yrs) 1938MW 1938MW
2 Small Hydropower 3,500MW 0.34 (over 40yrs) 25MW 25MW
3 Solar Radiation 3.5–70 KWh/m2/day (4.2 million MWh/day using 0.1% Nigeria land area) 5.2 (40 years and 0.1% Nigeria land area) ~6MWh/day Solar PV ~6MWh/day Solar PV
4 Wind (2-4) m/s at 10m height (main land) 0.0003 (4m/s @ 12% speed probability, 70m height, 20m rootor, 0.1% land area, 40 yrs)
5 Fuelwood 11 million hectares of forest and woodland Excess of 1.2m tonnes/day 0.20 million tonnes/day 0.120 million tonnes/day
Biomass Animal waste 211 million assorted animal 0.781 million tonnes of waste/day Not available
Energy Drops and Agric Residue 28.2 million hectares of Arable Land (~30% of total land) 0.256 million tonnes of assorted crops/day Not available
Tonnes of oil equivalent

 

There is a strong linkage between energy, environment and sustainable development in studying the linkage, public acceptance, health impact, long term availability and environmental impact of these energy sources both renewable and non-renewable must be given serious consideration.

A brief review of these energy sources suggests that:

Oil and Gas: most of which, is located in Niger Delta and some off-shore. The average production rate of crude oil in Nigeria is about 2.0 million barrels per day made possible through Joint Venture with Shell, Agip, Exxon Mobil where the Federal Government holding is 60%. Nigeria is a member of OPEC. The petroleum products which include petroleum motor spirit, (PMS) kerosene (DPK) diesel (AGO), fuel oil consumed In the country for domestic, transportation, electricity generation, industrial etc, come from our refineries and imports both managed by NNPC. The Proven Oil Reserves of African Countries are as shown in Table IV.

Table IV – Proven Oil Reserves of African Countries (billion barrels)

Countries 1988 1998 2008
Algeria 8.5 9.2 12.2
Angola 1.1 5.4 9.0
Benin 0.1 0.0 0.0
Cameroon 0.5 0.4 0.2
Chad NA NA 1.5
Congo 0.7 1.5 1.6
RDC 0.1 0.2 0.2
Cote d’Ivoire 0.1 0.1 0.1
Egypt 4.3 3.8 3.7
Equatorial Guinea NA 0.0 1.1
Gabon 0.6 2.5 2.0
Libya 21.0 29.5 41.5
Nigeria 16.0 16.8 36.2
South Africa NA 0.0 0.0

The exploitation of natural gas is by Joint Venture with companies from Upstream operations like Shell, Mobil, NNPC etc. About 30% of which is flared. The gas produced is used for power generation, feedstock in chemical industries, domestic uses, production of NLG, injection in oil fields etc while the left over is flared. The World Natural Gas Reserves is as shown in Table V.

Table V – World Natural Gas Reserves (billion cubic meters)

Countries 1988 1998 2008
North America 10.13 8.29 7.92
S & Central America 4.20 6.22 7.33
Europe & Eurasia 47.53 60.86 61.23
Middle East 30.35 48.33 71.3
Africa 6.96 9.76 13.7
Asia Pacific 7.15 8.98 11.6
World 106.32 142.42 173.19

 

Most of our power stations and industries like Ewekoro have access to gas supply through the Escravos – Lagos Pipeline (ELP) and Ibafo – Ikeja City Gate transmission facilities built by the Nigeria Gas Company (NGC). The birth of NLNG improves the utilization capacity of gas produced thereby reducing flaring further. To date as fossil-fuels have supplied most of the world’s energy requirements and current predictions are that the whole world both developed and developing including Nigeria will continue to rely heavily on these fuels this century. It is pertinent to note that one of the largest users of fossil-fuels is the electric utility industry. Nigeria’s thermal stations utilize gas and oil products. Both fuels are environment friendlier than coal when burned because each has less carbon concentration than coal.  A major disadvantage of the use of fossil-fuels in electric power generation besides its environmental impacts is security of supplies or at times, artificial scarcity. Current figures for Nigeria’s oil and gas reserves is put at 40 billion barrels and 187 trillion cubic feet respectively.

Coal:   was the first fossil-fuels used for steam generation in electric-utility and the rail system and plants. Coal is available throughout much of the world, and the quantity and quality of coal reserves are well known. It is projected that coal will be available for many centuries, but with reduction in economic competitiveness due to the introduction of new sophisticated purification technologies (like the Flue-Gas desulfurization (FGD) system, carbon taxes and carbon capture storage system (CCS)) aimed at reducing its adverse environmental impacts. Coal reserve in some selected countries in Africa is as shown in Table VI.

Table VI – Coal Reserves in Africa

Country Reserved (Billion Tonnes)
Africa 55.0
South Africa 48.750
Nigeria 2.7
Others 3.55

 

In Nigeria, coal which was almost abandoned with the arrival of oil and gas production, is currently being revisited for both export and local consumption through Joint Venture arrangement. Currently, Nigeria’s reserve estimates for coal is put at 2.7 billion tonnes. The reserves located at Okpara Enugu and Okaba in Kogi State are characterized by high calorific value, low moisture, low ash and very low sulphur content which make them environment friendly and safe to use as received for domestic cooking and industrial process heating.

The Nigerian Coal Corporation is charged with the responsibility of all mining operations and other Acts enacted for the successful operation of the industry. The type and quality of Nigerian coal is shown below.

TYPE AND QUALITY OF COAL

Coal Type

Sub-bituminous 49%
Bituminous 39%
Lignite 12%

 

Coal Quality

Sulphur 0.40 – 0.93%
Ash 6.40 – 11.2%
Moisture 7.60 – 13.5%
Heating Value 5,520 – 6,610KW/kg

ECN, April 2009

Hydropower: This is due to potential energy available from water due to height difference between its storage level and the tail water it is discharged as shown in fig 1.

(J.H. Krenz)
Fig. 1

The height difference or head and volume of water determine whether it is large or small hydro power station. Small hydropower (SHP) has capacity less than 30MW and large hydropower (LHP) has capacity greater than 30MW. The SHP is further subdivided into mini-(less than 1 MW) and micro-(<100KW). Recent estimate of the country’s hydro potential is put at 14,750MW with generation standing at 14% of our potential. Nigeria Electricity Supply Corporation (NESCO) was the first and continue to be foremost Independent Power Provider in Nigeria in the provision of local and grid connected electricity supply. Recently, the FG established a Centre of Excellence in Hydropower at the University of Ilorin, a step that is commendable. Hydropower contributes about 30% of the overall electricity generation in the country.

Nuclear Power:       an important energy source derived from the fission of a uranium atom which to some extent could be the solution to cheap and reliable energy supply in future. To date, the nuclear option accounts for about 16% of the world’s total electricity produced. Nigeria has joined the nuclear club by establishing the “Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission” charged with the responsibility to harness the full benefit of Nuclear Science and Engineering including power production. It is projected that Nigeria should be able to enjoy nuclear power in the next two decades. The Nigeria Atomic Commission has two Centres of Excellence located at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria and Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.

Solar Energy:           is the energy derived from the fusion of two hydrogen nuclei in the upper atmosphere, releasing an energy content of about 3.8 x 1021KW while only 1.7 x 1014KW is incident on earth due to absorption and reflection, in the atmosphere and the inverse square law dependence on earth-sun distance.  Similarly, the solar flux at the edge of the atmosphere is 1.4KW/m2 usually referred to as the solar constant. This energy from the sun can be used for water heating, cooking, distillation, desalination, drying, cooling and electricity generation. Electricity can be generated using photothermal (or thermo-electric) plants and/or solar photovoltaics.

Wind Energy:          this is the energy derived from the rated wind speed of 2.0 – 4.0ms-1 annually. The gross energy of a wind electric generator (WEG) depends on the wind resume at a particular site. WEGs are available on the international market at power ratings from 0.03KW to 5MW with operating efficiency in the range 30 – 40%. WEGs can also be classified as stand-alone systems for autonomous applications and grid-connected systems.

Wind energy has great potential for development in areas with wind spread between 2 – 4.0m/s as an alternative energy source. It encourages small energy packages and competes favourably where the potential exists with solar energy applications. Fig. 2 shows a typical windmill.

Fig. 2 –  Wind Energy Equipment

Biomass:       is the oldest fuel used to generate electricity especially in the agricultural processing industries using wastes from their oil mills, sugar factories among others.

Biomass can be non-woody or woody. The woody biomass can also be classified as medicinal and non-medicinal. The non-medicinal constitute fuel wood which our teaming population solely depend on for the provision of their domestic energy needs.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF FUELS

There is a growing interest in environmental impact assessment (EIA) and indeed a major requirement that such an assessment be included in the planning and proposals for new energy projects to determine its feasibility or otherwise. This becomes very important because energy is essentially responsible for most of the environmental problems, tension and/or conflicts facing nations today even though huge amount of energy is absolutely needed for sustainable socio-economic development in both industrialized and developing countries.

The environmental impacts of non-renewable fuel such as oil, coal, gas, nuclear, fuel wood, large hydropower can be local, regional and/or global depending on the stage of each fuel cycle. Local impacts include loss of biodiversity, aesthetics, carbon dioxide sink while the regional impact include air land and water pollutions and the global impact, ozone depletion, climate change etc.

The ultimate atmospheric threat, global warning, which arises from excess carbon-dioxide released from the burning of fossil-fuel, Chloro-Floro Carbons (CFCs) from air-conditioning systems, loss of carbon dioxide (CO2) sink due to deforestation, methane and other gases cause greenhouse effect, leading to climate change that results eventually in severe water shortages, lowered agricultural production in important food producing regions, destruction of coral reefs and northern forests and a sea level rise that could swamp coastal cities or even entire countries are some of the side effects. Examples abound abroad and locally, in particular Nigeria currently experienced such when the sea took over half of the road leading to Eko Hotel in Lagos and series of flooding incidents recorded in other parts of the country including Ibadan city.

Most forms of transportation systems have harmful effects on the environment, due to the burning of petroleum products in internal combustion engines, the evaporation of these fuels during storage, transport and transfer to vehicles with better emission controls, cleaner automotive fuels, clean fossil-fuel technology, car pool, mass transit, etc.

The environmental burden of using fossil-fuels to provide transport energy is not limited to air pollution resulting from the handling of fuels and combuston process. The exploration for, extraction, transportation, refining and distribution of petroleum, coal and natural gas all have significant adverse environmental impacts. Other causes of environmental damage include: oil spill, loss of aesthetic, noise pollution, deforestation, well blowouts. For instance, the Niger Delta area of Nigeria is currently experiencing the adverse effects of environmental degradation due to all these.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF RENEWABLE FUELS

Unlike the non-renewable energy sources (NRES), most environmental impacts of renewable energy sources (RES) are primarily local. These include loss of bio-diversity, loss of aesthetics, deforestation, rehabilitation, flooding noise pollution and threat to wildlife.

Deforestation that causes loss of carbon dioxide CO2 sink and consequently increasing the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere could be countered by instituting a Joint Venture between energy and food crops in which case the latter acts as CO2 sink.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Despite this large energy resource base, commercial energy use in Nigeria is one of the lowest in the world with an average commercial energy per capital of 300kg petrol equivalent compare with a world average of 1,434kg (World Bank Index 1996). This wide gap between available primary energy resource and consumption lend support to the little or no access to energy in Nigeria particularly the rural areas where about 90% of their population depends on biomass energy and little or no electricity supply for survival. The limited access to energy by the high percentage of Nigerians for survival or improved quality of life, calls for a great concern more so that the woody-biomass energy they depend on, not only faces exhaustion but also causes environmental degradation. The often forgotten health hazard exposed to by mothers and children due to fuel wood burning in the home is a cause for concern. Also, the urban dwellers has problem of un-interrupted power supply as electricity produced using fossil-fuels and large hydro are generally inadequate irregular and erratic.

Therefore, since huge amount of energy is required to meet the industrialization, transportation as well as domestic needs of the growing population for our socio-economic development, any realistic global energy scenario must provide for increased primary energy use in a sustainable and environment friendly way. To achieve sustainable future, the following programmes amongst others are essential:

  • Capacity building in energy techniques, environmental science and engineering, environmental economics, management science, science and technology
  • Energy security: This involves the provision of modern energy which include LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) and electricity to the poorest of the rural/urban poor at affordable prices in an environment friendly way for cooking, lighting, refrigeration, water pumping, hot water, irrigation-fed agriculture and other productive uses in agro industry to achieve the MDGs goal by 2015 and beyond.
  • Expand on and increase the number of gas-run thermal stations.
  • Adopt cleaner fossil fuels technology
  • Develop new energy technologies to harness available/abundant renewable energy sources.
  • Encourage physical incentives (tax rebate, free custom duties etc) on renewable energy parts and equipment.

 

RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY

In order to achieve sustainable energy provision, new renewable energy technologies must be developed and or existing ones improved on.

Table II – III, show that Nigeria is endowed with an enormous energy resource base, both conventional like fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal, fuel wood, large hydro, uranium etc) and no-conventional like solar, mini- & micro-hydro, non-woody biomass, wind etc. The potential of these energy sources to supply enough energy (electricity or non-electric) show that with proper planning appropriate technology, funds and strong political will, Nigeria should be able to provide enough energy for its people. Table VII show the expected energy from these sources based on normal and optimistic scenarios of the Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN).

Table VII – Targets for Renewable Electricity Supply in Nigeria measured in MW

  Resource 2007 2015 2025
1 Small Hydro 50 600 2,000
2 Solar PV 05 75 500
3 Solar Thermal 01 05
4 Biomass 50 400
5 Wind 01 20 40
Total 56 746 2,945
ECN High Growth Scenario Projections 7,000 14,000 29,000
Percentage share of projected energy demand 0.80 05 10

ECN 2005

To date Nigeria produces electric energy of 4,000MW from an installed capacity of 7000MW which is grossly inadequate to take care of the urban and peri-urban needs, not to talk of the rural, isolated people that constitute about 70% of the population and has little or no access to electricity supply and thereby depends on the non-electric energy supply to satisfy their needs.

The provision of electricity through fossil-fuels besides its attendant adverse environmental impacts, exhaustibility of fuels as they are non-renewable. Nigeria and in fact the whole world will continue to depend on fossil-fuel for their energy supply for many years to come. Therefore, for adequate, regular sustainable (electric and non-electric) energy supply Nigeria as a nation should  improve and expand the present supply system using cleaner fossil fuel technology as well as develop new technologies in renewable energy for additional power supply. Table VIII shows some of the existing thermal and hydropower stations in the country.

Table VIII – Existing Thermal and Hydropower Stations in the Country

  Stations Installed Cap (MW) Projected Contribution (MW) Remarks
Existing Stations Egbin 1,320 600 Rehabilitation works in progress. N2.6b is required
Delta 870 580
Sapele 1,020 150 Rehabilitation works in progress
Afam 920 410
Kainji 760 380 Rehabilitation works in progress funded by World Bank
Jebba 540 270
Shiroro 600 300
AES 270 270
Okpai 450 450
Omoku 100 50
Ajaokuta 100 40
Ijora 40 40 To be used during peak generation using diesel
Omotosho I 335 309 The station is not fully functional due to lack of gas (currently only 70MW contribution)
Olorunsogo I 335 309 The station is not fully functional due to lack of gas (currently only 39MW contribution)
NIPP Station Geregu I 414 414 The station is not fully functional due to lack of gas (currently only 100MW contribution)
Emergency Generation Using Strategic Fuels (LPFO, HPFO, Diesel & Crude Oil) 300 300 Total of 300MW can be injected into 11/300KV network from small generators using strategic fuels
Total 8,074 4,872  

ECN Project Report

Sustainable energy means (i) all renewable energy sources such as small hydro, solar energy, wind energy wave power, geothermal, bio-energy and tidal power and (ii) energy efficient technology or energy conservation.

For a sustainable future, the renewable energy technologies currently in existence must be revisited for modification or new ones developed to provide additional energy both electricity and non-electric energy for the rural and the urban poor areas. In the light of these technologies that are being promoted by energy research centres, institutions and agancies like Solar Energy Research Centres at Usman dan Fodio University, Sokoto and University of Nigeria, Nsuka include

  1. Solar Technologies: Solar radiation can be converted directly or indirectly to electricity as well as heat of low and very high temperatures depending on the load by thermal and photovoltaic technologies.

Thermal Technologies:     The conversion of solar radiation to heat of low and very high temperatures can be achieved using flat plate collectors and focusing (concentrating) collectors respectively.

The flat-plate collector is a simple technology which involves a flat metal plate painted black and placed in a box with cover glass and insulations on the sides and bottom to prevent heat loss. To improve the efficiency of this collector for higher temperatures the plate may be covered with a selective surface that absorbs solar radiation in wave length range 0.2 – 2.0mm and/or place mirrors on the sides to increase the quantum of incident flux. A typical flat-plate solar collector is shown in fig 3 below.

Fig. 3 –

Efforts made so far in the design, construction and testing of various solar thermal equipment lead to fabrication of solar cookers, solar water heaters and solar driers for drying agricultural products, solar distillation etc, these equipment are for low (less than 100˚C) applications.

 Fig. 4 – Renewable Energy Technology Equipments

Photothermal conversion of solar radiation to very high temperature heat (greater than 250˚C) and electricity generation is accomplished using focusing collectors of different designs and configurations shown in fig. 5. The concentrating parabolic collectors (CPC) are most common for the production of high temperature and pressure steam required for electricity generation. At times series of mirrors joined together called heliostats are used to concentrate solar radiator on absorber of a tower power plant as shown in fig. 6 below. For this high temperature applications, the absorber surface is usually coated with selective surface instead of ordinary black paint. This technology is being developed for high power electricity generation of several MWs.

 

Fig. 5 – Typical Concentrating Collectors

 

Fig. 6- Solar Power Tower

 

Photovoltaic Technologies:         Stand alone power plants encourage decentralized area based small energy packages of few KW which enjoys wide-spread application in the rural and urban-poor areas, in fact, the unique advantages of Solar PV include amongst others simplicity, reliability, modularity and minimal maintenance requirements.

It is important to note that photo-voltaic cell do convert sunlight directly to direct current (dc) electricity. For efficiency and practicability, multiple cells are connected together in series/parallel fashion and placed in a glass covered housing called a module. The modules shown in fig 7 are then connected together into arrays.

 Fig. 7 – Typical Solar PV Panel

PV can produce as much direct current electricity as desired through the addition of more modules PV technologies also provide guides and modular deployment, reduction in transmission and distribution loses because they are distributed generators with improved service reliability for consumers and can be located near or at consumers points. Some areas of applications of PV system are shown in Table IX.

Table IX – Various Applications of PV Systems in Nigeria

Electricity Generation Nominal Power Recommended RET Applications
150W PV Systems Rural Household Comm. Transmitters
150W – 5KW PV Systems, Wind Power Health Clinic, Schools, Water Pumping, Battery Charging, etc
5KW – 50KW PV Systems, Wind Power, Rural Micro Hydro, Biomass Residues
50KW – 500KW Wind Power, Micro Hydro, Biomass Residues Village Electrification, Small Scale Industries
Industrial Heat Low Temperature (less than 100˚C) Solar Collectors, Domestic Hot Water Heating- Schools, Homes, Clinics
High Temperature (greater than 100˚) Fuelwood, Biogas, Biomass Cooking Process Steam

 

PV cells are simple low risk technologies that can be installed virtually anywhere there is available light, like building roofs, motorways, communication repeater stations, clinics also used for irrigation-fed agric. PV solar systems are available on international market at power rating as low as 10W to few MW. A PV module now costs between $4 and $10 per peak watt with a life span of 20yrs and a very short payback period.

The only limitation to the wide spread dissemination of renewable energy technologies the much talked about solution towards sustainable development is the high initial cost. This becomes relevant when one generates electricity directly from sunlight using photovoltaic, and indirectly using photothermal converters. It is pertinent to note that the economy of scale of small PV (solar) cells less than one kilowatt (1KW) lend themselves to wide spread usage with the added advantage that the system not only pay back after some years with minimum maintenance but also does not require fuel for its operation. The economy of scale of large PV systems and photothermal converters do not allow their wide spread application because achieving the current use level of MW range will require a coordinated research, development and demonstration (RDD) programme with high level of funding. The two centres of excellence located at Usman dan Fodio University, Sokoto and University of Nigeria, Nsuka were established by the FG to exploit the full potential of solar energy for the country’s sustainable socio-economic development.

The efforts of these centres and other institutions and agencies to fabricate photovoltaic (solar) cell locally are still on the laboratory scale. A notable exception is the National Agency for Science and Engineering Infrastructure (NASENI) working hard to fabricate and mass produce solar cells for commercial purposes soonest. However, in the area of application and  awareness the centres, institutions, agencies and in particular Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN) have demonstrated the useful power of solar cells in the areas of lighting – in homes and the street. For instance ECN intends to supply and install many solar cells in the next few years. For demonstration fig 8 shows some examples of solar panels.

Fig. 8 – Solar Street Lights

 

  1. Hydro Technologies: There are two types of hydropower systems, the small and large hydro power. The SHP is usually the run-of-the-river type but when the flow is regulated by storages and reservoirs it can be of the storage reservoir type. Cause of this, any type of SHP can be developed. SHP is a simple technology which consists of penstock, turbine, regulator, generators alternator, and inverter. It can store excess power in batteries for later use. In case of reservoir type there is need for a dam. Local Content Initiative can assist in the future establishment, operation and maintenance of SHPs. The diverse advantages of SHP include provision of electricity to the rural population, poverty reduction, prevents rural-urban migration, job opportunity. Limitations of SHP include, sites are usually in remote areas, water shortage from run-of-the-river when diverted or due to drought. Table X shows available SHP in Nigeria.

Table X The Existing Small Hydro Schemes in Nigeria

S/No River State Installed Capacity (MW) Current Status
1 Bagel (I)(II) Plateau 1.02.0 Had been in operation since early 90s. Up till now, it is still functioning
2 Kurra Plateau 8.0 Had been in operation since early 90s. Up till now, it is still functioning
3 Lere (I)(II) Plateau 4.04.0 Had been in operation since early 90s. Up till now, it is still functioning
4 *Bakalori Sokoto 3.0 Operated for a short while and packed-up since 1993
5 *Tiga Kano 6.0 Dam construction – Completed,  Electro-mechanical equipment – Never installed
6 *Ikere Gorge, Iseyin Oyo 6.0 Dam construction – Completed,  Electro-mechanical equipment – Never installed
7 *Oyan Ogun 9.0 Dam construction – Completed,  Electro-mechanical equipment – Never installed
8 Dadinkowa Dam Gombe 34 Dam construction – Completed , Hydropower Component yet to be awarded
9 Challowawa Gorge Dam Kano 7.0 Dam construction – Completed,  Electro-mechanical equipment – Never installed

Source: Compiled by ECN

Fortunately Oyo State has a 6MW SHP under construction at Ikere Gorge in Iseyin as shown in Table X. Completion of this and survey for other sites will assist tremendously access to electricity in Oyo State. It is most likely that there exists possible sites for SHP in Ibadan and environs.

  1. Biomass Technologies: Biomass materials include cow dung, human excreta, agricultural waste. All over the world the techniques used for the conversion of organic biomass materials to solid, liquid and gaseous fuels include biogas, bio-fuels, woodstoves and briquetting technologies.

Biogas is composed of 60 – 70% methane (CH4), 23 – 38%, carbon dioxide (CO2) and 2% hydrogen (H2) with traces of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) produced by the anaerobic (in the absence of oxygen) digestion of organic materials. Biogas can be used for heating, cooking and lighting, particularly in the farm for agro industrial production. Examples of biogas digester are shown in fig. 9

Fig. 9 – Biogas Digesters

 

Another form of biogas digester is the floating drum and plastic balloon and tube types. Under the Africa 2000 low technology biogas programme, a community of 40 at Kwachiri in Kano State has been enjoying this facility with cow dung as substrate since 2003 for cooking.

Other designs of biogas equipment include the bag digester, the floating cover and the fixed dome, improved woodstoves, and combustors.

Electric power can be generated from biomass through combustion and gasification processes. Electric energy from biomass especially by gasification process has economic competitiveness with diesel generators in the power rating of few tens of KW, while above IMW combustion process which is a fully proven technique at the commercial level for wood and ligneous wastes like groundnut shells, sugarcane, rice husks, cotton seed pods becomes competitive.

The non-woody biomass constitute animal and human wastes, agricultural wastes which can be harnessed for the provision of gas thus promoting the development and use of efficient biomass energy technologies by the various centres and institution in particular at Usman dan Fodio University, Sokoto and University of Nigeria, Nsuka are shown in fig 10. Ethanol and biodesel derived from biomass are being produced at the renewable energy division of NNPC whose mandate include the large scale production, and purchase of available biofuels and the incorporation of same in Automotive Gas Oil to reduce dependence on PMS. Table VII shows the projected capacity of renewable energy resources in Nigeria measured in MW.

Fig. 10 – Biomass Energy Technologies

CHALLENGES

For solar, wind, mini- and micro-hydro and biomass to meet a large proportion of the global electricity demand all technology options must be kept open for their exploitation and development as economic options for base load electricity generation especially using the photothermal and photovoltaic technologies. PV technologies enjoy provision of limitless electricity from sunshine best suited for large and small power load demands (PLDs), since quantum of solar radiation available around the world can satisfy a rapid increased demand for solar power because the incident solar radiation on earth is enough to provide for global energy consumption 10,000 times ever. This then calls for heavy investments in the development and deployment of these technologies.

  • The conventional energy sources face exhaustion and thereby can consider energy conservation or efficiency as an alternative source of energy to extend the lifetime of the present energy sources.
  • Poor awareness of the role Renewable Energy Technology can play in creating easy access to electricity for the rural people on a sustainable basis.
  • Inadequate gas supply to power plants.
  • Need for Solar Architecture under the Passive Solar Energy Programme.
  • Poor funding of renewable energy development.

WAYFORWARD

The technology response needed to cope with the increasing evidence of the risk of global warming and climate change due to our excessive dependence on fossil fuels for almost all our energy needs must address key elements of a response that include

  • Improving the efficiency of existing fossil fuel fired plants using cleaner fossil-fuel technology;
  • Expanding the use of natural gas as a substitute for coal and oil in power plants provided adequate, regular and sustainable gas supply is assured;
  • Expanding the use of hydro power based on the deployment of mini and micro hydro resources where available;
  • Promoting other renewable energy sources in particular solar energy, biomass and to a certain extent wind where economically viable;
  • Accelerate investments in cost-effective measures for demand management and end use efficiency improvement or energy conservation;
  • Developing a strong, viable and sustainable capacity building programme in all energy technologies;
  • Develop nuclear power as is the most likely non-fossil fuel which can be deployed on a much larger scale;
  • The informal sector of the economy must be taken into account in the planning for additional energy (electricity and non-electric) supply;
  • Oyo State Government should embrace solar, biomass and small hydro technologies for improved power supply in the state;

CONCLUSION

As the main trust of energy usage in Nigeria is excessive consumption of low quality fuels like fuel-wood, charcoal and other non-woody biomass, every effort should be made to make accessible to the rural/urban poor high quality fuel like Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and electricity. In addition, the Energy Commission of Nigeria has initiated a programme on awareness and demonstration of renewable energy equipment that involve the provision and installation of small solar PV, solar thermal equipment like driers, water heater, distillator, biomass equipment – efficient wood stoves, biogas digesters and briquettes etc. Solar architecture is also being envisaged under the Passive Solar System (no moving parts involved but uses architecture to utilize solar energy) programme.

  • Energy security must be given serious consideration through the development of Renewable Energy Technologies (in solar, mini- and micro-hydro, wind and biomass) to assist in the provision of sustainable modern energy (electricity and non-electric) to reduce poverty level for at least 50% of the population by 2015 in line with MDG I (Millennium Development Goal).
  • The nation must improve and expand on the existing thermal and hydropower stations for the provision of additional modern energy.
  • The Federal Government must give full legal and financial supports for the actualization of the Renewable Energy Master Plan.

Finally, once again I thank the great people and distinguished sons and daughters of Oluyole Club for this honour to deliver this Annual Oluyole Lecture Series. I thank you all and God bless.

Thank you

Oke’badan Yio Gbe Wa O.

Reference

Energy Document from

Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN)

Energy – Conversion and utilization by J.H. Krenz

  • Year 2012 Lecture delivered on the 12th of January, 2013 – The Investors Survival Guide In A Depressed Nigerian Capital Market by Chief (Dr.) Olusola Dada (MFR).

TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE ENERGY PROVISION IN NIGERIA

 By

Prof. A.M. Salau

Department of Physics

Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife

 Presented at the

OLUYOLE ANNUAL LECTURE

Held in Ibadan at Kakanfo Inn, Ibadan

14th January, 2012

 Protocol

It gives me a great pleasure to be before you distinguished sons and daughters of Ibadan land and the highly rated Oluyole Club today to deliver a lecture titled “Towards Sustainable Energy Provision in Nigeria”. I thank you for this unique opportunity.

 TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE ENERGY PROVISION IN NIGERIA

SUMMARY:

The paper discusses the potential of various energy sources – renewable (resources that are continuous and do not change appreciable over million of years) and non-renewable (resources that are limited and therefore faces exhaustion in the nearest future) and their deployment to attain energy security through the provision of additional energy (electricity and non-electrical) by renewable energy technologies in particular. The environmental impacts which limit the extensive utilization of non-renewable fuels but promote that of renewable fuels are highlighted. At the end, recommendations are made on the way forward to improve easy access to energy in Nigeria on a sustainable basis.

INTRODUCTION

Adequate, abundant, cheap and regular energy supply is a goal for every nation in the world to improve the quality of life of its people as energy is central to sustainable development and poverty reduction. This is why UNDP support the sustainable energy provision to reduce half the proportion of population living in poverty by 2015 in line with one of the objective of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in particular MDGI. In the light of this, there exists a tremendous tension between the demand for and the supply of more energy in particular electricity and the protection of the environment and sustainable development in order to achieve a new strategy in which economic strength, environment and sustainable development peacefully co-exist. The choices run from the non-renewables like oil and its products, gas, coal, large-hydro and uranium (a radioactive element with two natural isotopes) to the renewables like solar, wind, biomass, geothermal and mini- and micro-hydro. Table I shows the world fossil fuel reserve.

Table I – World Fossil Fuel Reserves

Country Coal mfc Gas tcf Oil  bb
Nigeria 209 mt 184.00 40
Africa 55,486 485,841.00 109,759
Middle East 462 2,565.400 775,644
Europe 65,762 182.761.00 15,980
USA 276,544 204,385.00 21,757
World Average 997.748 6,226.555 1,119.615

 

They all compete with and complement each other depending on their relative appropriations and economies, in particular applications. These energy sources have the potential of been converted to heat of low and high temperatures as well as to electricity, the form energy, is mainly required for commercial, industrial, transportation and domestic purposes, to improve the quality of life of its people. Therefore, energy, in particular, electricity is a prerequisite for the proper functioning of nearly all the sectors of the economy and thus an essential good and service, whose availability, accessibility, quantity and quality can determine the success or failure of a nations’ sustainable development endeavors.

Therefore, appropriate, useful and usable energy-mix policies and plans must evolve and made compliant with the national economic planning. Their implementation must then be synchronized with that of the other sectors of the economy to enable easy and sustainable access to energy.

This paper discusses briefly the potentials of these various energy sources and their estimated reserves, given, where available as well as their conversion to heat of low and very high temperatures and direct conversion to direct current electricity. Also the environmental impacts which limits the extensive utilization of NRES, but promotes the inclusion of the RES, like solar, wind, biomass and mini- and micro-hydro in the energy-mix of Nigeria are highlighted.

However, emphasis in this paper is primarily on renewable energy relevant to sustainable energy provision to attain energy security through the additional energy (electricity and non-electric) from renewable energy sources.

OVERVIEW OF ENERGY SOURCES

Nigeria is endowed with huge amount of various energy resources, renewable (resources that are continuous and do not change appreciable over million of years) and non-renewable (resources that are limited and therefore faces exhaustion in the nearest future). The renewable energy resources (RES) or non-conventional energy resources include solar, wind, mini- and micro-hydro and biomass. While the non-renewable energy resources (NRES) or conventional energy sources include oil, gas, coal, large-hydro and uranium. Tables II & III show the fossil fuels and renewable energy resources in Nigeria

Table II – Fossil and Nuclear Resources in Nigeria

S/N Resource Type Reserves Production
1 Crude Oil 40 billion barrels 2.5 million barrels/day
2 Natural Gas 187 trillion SCF 6 billion SCF/day
3 Coal and Lignite 2.7 billion tonnes (insignificant)
4 Tar Sands 31 billion barrel of equivalent
5 Nuclear Element Not yet qualified

Table III – Renewable Energy Resource

          Domestic
S/N Resource Type Reserves   Production Utilization
Energy Units (Btoe*) (Natural Units)
1 Hydropower large 11,250MW 0.8 (over 40yrs) 1938MW 1938MW
2 Small Hydropower 3,500MW 0.34 (over 40yrs) 25MW 25MW
3 Solar Radiation 3.5–70 KWh/m2/day (4.2 million MWh/day using 0.1% Nigeria land area) 5.2 (40 years and 0.1% Nigeria land area) ~6MWh/day Solar PV ~6MWh/day Solar PV
4 Wind (2-4) m/s at 10m height (main land) 0.0003 (4m/s @ 12% speed probability, 70m height, 20m rootor, 0.1% land area, 40 yrs)
5 Fuelwood 11 million hectares of forest and woodland Excess of 1.2m tonnes/day 0.20 million tonnes/day 0.120 million tonnes/day
Biomass Animal waste 211 million assorted animal 0.781 million tonnes of waste/day Not available
Energy Drops and Agric Residue 28.2 million hectares of Arable Land (~30% of total land) 0.256 million tonnes of assorted crops/day Not available
Tonnes of oil equivalent

 

There is a strong linkage between energy, environment and sustainable development in studying the linkage, public acceptance, health impact, long term availability and environmental impact of these energy sources both renewable and non-renewable must be given serious consideration.

A brief review of these energy sources suggests that:

Oil and Gas: most of which, is located in Niger Delta and some off-shore. The average production rate of crude oil in Nigeria is about 2.0 million barrels per day made possible through Joint Venture with Shell, Agip, Exxon Mobil where the Federal Government holding is 60%. Nigeria is a member of OPEC. The petroleum products which include petroleum motor spirit, (PMS) kerosene (DPK) diesel (AGO), fuel oil consumed In the country for domestic, transportation, electricity generation, industrial etc, come from our refineries and imports both managed by NNPC. The Proven Oil Reserves of African Countries are as shown in Table IV.

Table IV – Proven Oil Reserves of African Countries (billion barrels)

Countries 1988 1998 2008
Algeria 8.5 9.2 12.2
Angola 1.1 5.4 9.0
Benin 0.1 0.0 0.0
Cameroon 0.5 0.4 0.2
Chad NA NA 1.5
Congo 0.7 1.5 1.6
RDC 0.1 0.2 0.2
Cote d’Ivoire 0.1 0.1 0.1
Egypt 4.3 3.8 3.7
Equatorial Guinea NA 0.0 1.1
Gabon 0.6 2.5 2.0
Libya 21.0 29.5 41.5
Nigeria 16.0 16.8 36.2
South Africa NA 0.0 0.0

The exploitation of natural gas is by Joint Venture with companies from Upstream operations like Shell, Mobil, NNPC etc. About 30% of which is flared. The gas produced is used for power generation, feedstock in chemical industries, domestic uses, production of NLG, injection in oil fields etc while the left over is flared. The World Natural Gas Reserves is as shown in Table V.

Table V – World Natural Gas Reserves (billion cubic meters)

Countries 1988 1998 2008
North America 10.13 8.29 7.92
S & Central America 4.20 6.22 7.33
Europe & Eurasia 47.53 60.86 61.23
Middle East 30.35 48.33 71.3
Africa 6.96 9.76 13.7
Asia Pacific 7.15 8.98 11.6
World 106.32 142.42 173.19

 

Most of our power stations and industries like Ewekoro have access to gas supply through the Escravos – Lagos Pipeline (ELP) and Ibafo – Ikeja City Gate transmission facilities built by the Nigeria Gas Company (NGC). The birth of NLNG improves the utilization capacity of gas produced thereby reducing flaring further. To date as fossil-fuels have supplied most of the world’s energy requirements and current predictions are that the whole world both developed and developing including Nigeria will continue to rely heavily on these fuels this century. It is pertinent to note that one of the largest users of fossil-fuels is the electric utility industry. Nigeria’s thermal stations utilize gas and oil products. Both fuels are environment friendlier than coal when burned because each has less carbon concentration than coal.  A major disadvantage of the use of fossil-fuels in electric power generation besides its environmental impacts is security of supplies or at times, artificial scarcity. Current figures for Nigeria’s oil and gas reserves is put at 40 billion barrels and 187 trillion cubic feet respectively.

Coal:   was the first fossil-fuels used for steam generation in electric-utility and the rail system and plants. Coal is available throughout much of the world, and the quantity and quality of coal reserves are well known. It is projected that coal will be available for many centuries, but with reduction in economic competitiveness due to the introduction of new sophisticated purification technologies (like the Flue-Gas desulfurization (FGD) system, carbon taxes and carbon capture storage system (CCS)) aimed at reducing its adverse environmental impacts. Coal reserve in some selected countries in Africa is as shown in Table VI.

Table VI – Coal Reserves in Africa

Country Reserved (Billion Tonnes)
Africa 55.0
South Africa 48.750
Nigeria 2.7
Others 3.55

 

In Nigeria, coal which was almost abandoned with the arrival of oil and gas production, is currently being revisited for both export and local consumption through Joint Venture arrangement. Currently, Nigeria’s reserve estimates for coal is put at 2.7 billion tonnes. The reserves located at Okpara Enugu and Okaba in Kogi State are characterized by high calorific value, low moisture, low ash and very low sulphur content which make them environment friendly and safe to use as received for domestic cooking and industrial process heating.

The Nigerian Coal Corporation is charged with the responsibility of all mining operations and other Acts enacted for the successful operation of the industry. The type and quality of Nigerian coal is shown below.

TYPE AND QUALITY OF COAL

Coal Type

Sub-bituminous 49%
Bituminous 39%
Lignite 12%

 

Coal Quality

Sulphur 0.40 – 0.93%
Ash 6.40 – 11.2%
Moisture 7.60 – 13.5%
Heating Value 5,520 – 6,610KW/kg

ECN, April 2009

Hydropower: This is due to potential energy available from water due to height difference between its storage level and the tail water it is discharged as shown in fig 1.

(J.H. Krenz)
Fig. 1

The height difference or head and volume of water determine whether it is large or small hydro power station. Small hydropower (SHP) has capacity less than 30MW and large hydropower (LHP) has capacity greater than 30MW. The SHP is further subdivided into mini-(less than 1 MW) and micro-(<100KW). Recent estimate of the country’s hydro potential is put at 14,750MW with generation standing at 14% of our potential. Nigeria Electricity Supply Corporation (NESCO) was the first and continue to be foremost Independent Power Provider in Nigeria in the provision of local and grid connected electricity supply. Recently, the FG established a Centre of Excellence in Hydropower at the University of Ilorin, a step that is commendable. Hydropower contributes about 30% of the overall electricity generation in the country.

Nuclear Power:       an important energy source derived from the fission of a uranium atom which to some extent could be the solution to cheap and reliable energy supply in future. To date, the nuclear option accounts for about 16% of the world’s total electricity produced. Nigeria has joined the nuclear club by establishing the “Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission” charged with the responsibility to harness the full benefit of Nuclear Science and Engineering including power production. It is projected that Nigeria should be able to enjoy nuclear power in the next two decades. The Nigeria Atomic Commission has two Centres of Excellence located at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria and Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.

Solar Energy:           is the energy derived from the fusion of two hydrogen nuclei in the upper atmosphere, releasing an energy content of about 3.8 x 1021KW while only 1.7 x 1014KW is incident on earth due to absorption and reflection, in the atmosphere and the inverse square law dependence on earth-sun distance.  Similarly, the solar flux at the edge of the atmosphere is 1.4KW/m2 usually referred to as the solar constant. This energy from the sun can be used for water heating, cooking, distillation, desalination, drying, cooling and electricity generation. Electricity can be generated using photothermal (or thermo-electric) plants and/or solar photovoltaics.

Wind Energy:          this is the energy derived from the rated wind speed of 2.0 – 4.0ms-1 annually. The gross energy of a wind electric generator (WEG) depends on the wind resume at a particular site. WEGs are available on the international market at power ratings from 0.03KW to 5MW with operating efficiency in the range 30 – 40%. WEGs can also be classified as stand-alone systems for autonomous applications and grid-connected systems.

Wind energy has great potential for development in areas with wind spread between 2 – 4.0m/s as an alternative energy source. It encourages small energy packages and competes favourably where the potential exists with solar energy applications. Fig. 2 shows a typical windmill.

Fig. 2 –  Wind Energy Equipment

Biomass:       is the oldest fuel used to generate electricity especially in the agricultural processing industries using wastes from their oil mills, sugar factories among others.

Biomass can be non-woody or woody. The woody biomass can also be classified as medicinal and non-medicinal. The non-medicinal constitute fuel wood which our teaming population solely depend on for the provision of their domestic energy needs.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF FUELS

There is a growing interest in environmental impact assessment (EIA) and indeed a major requirement that such an assessment be included in the planning and proposals for new energy projects to determine its feasibility or otherwise. This becomes very important because energy is essentially responsible for most of the environmental problems, tension and/or conflicts facing nations today even though huge amount of energy is absolutely needed for sustainable socio-economic development in both industrialized and developing countries.

The environmental impacts of non-renewable fuel such as oil, coal, gas, nuclear, fuel wood, large hydropower can be local, regional and/or global depending on the stage of each fuel cycle. Local impacts include loss of biodiversity, aesthetics, carbon dioxide sink while the regional impact include air land and water pollutions and the global impact, ozone depletion, climate change etc.

The ultimate atmospheric threat, global warning, which arises from excess carbon-dioxide released from the burning of fossil-fuel, Chloro-Floro Carbons (CFCs) from air-conditioning systems, loss of carbon dioxide (CO2) sink due to deforestation, methane and other gases cause greenhouse effect, leading to climate change that results eventually in severe water shortages, lowered agricultural production in important food producing regions, destruction of coral reefs and northern forests and a sea level rise that could swamp coastal cities or even entire countries are some of the side effects. Examples abound abroad and locally, in particular Nigeria currently experienced such when the sea took over half of the road leading to Eko Hotel in Lagos and series of flooding incidents recorded in other parts of the country including Ibadan city.

Most forms of transportation systems have harmful effects on the environment, due to the burning of petroleum products in internal combustion engines, the evaporation of these fuels during storage, transport and transfer to vehicles with better emission controls, cleaner automotive fuels, clean fossil-fuel technology, car pool, mass transit, etc.

The environmental burden of using fossil-fuels to provide transport energy is not limited to air pollution resulting from the handling of fuels and combuston process. The exploration for, extraction, transportation, refining and distribution of petroleum, coal and natural gas all have significant adverse environmental impacts. Other causes of environmental damage include: oil spill, loss of aesthetic, noise pollution, deforestation, well blowouts. For instance, the Niger Delta area of Nigeria is currently experiencing the adverse effects of environmental degradation due to all these.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF RENEWABLE FUELS

Unlike the non-renewable energy sources (NRES), most environmental impacts of renewable energy sources (RES) are primarily local. These include loss of bio-diversity, loss of aesthetics, deforestation, rehabilitation, flooding noise pollution and threat to wildlife.

Deforestation that causes loss of carbon dioxide CO2 sink and consequently increasing the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere could be countered by instituting a Joint Venture between energy and food crops in which case the latter acts as CO2 sink.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Despite this large energy resource base, commercial energy use in Nigeria is one of the lowest in the world with an average commercial energy per capital of 300kg petrol equivalent compare with a world average of 1,434kg (World Bank Index 1996). This wide gap between available primary energy resource and consumption lend support to the little or no access to energy in Nigeria particularly the rural areas where about 90% of their population depends on biomass energy and little or no electricity supply for survival. The limited access to energy by the high percentage of Nigerians for survival or improved quality of life, calls for a great concern more so that the woody-biomass energy they depend on, not only faces exhaustion but also causes environmental degradation. The often forgotten health hazard exposed to by mothers and children due to fuel wood burning in the home is a cause for concern. Also, the urban dwellers has problem of un-interrupted power supply as electricity produced using fossil-fuels and large hydro are generally inadequate irregular and erratic.

Therefore, since huge amount of energy is required to meet the industrialization, transportation as well as domestic needs of the growing population for our socio-economic development, any realistic global energy scenario must provide for increased primary energy use in a sustainable and environment friendly way. To achieve sustainable future, the following programmes amongst others are essential:

  • Capacity building in energy techniques, environmental science and engineering, environmental economics, management science, science and technology
  • Energy security: This involves the provision of modern energy which include LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) and electricity to the poorest of the rural/urban poor at affordable prices in an environment friendly way for cooking, lighting, refrigeration, water pumping, hot water, irrigation-fed agriculture and other productive uses in agro industry to achieve the MDGs goal by 2015 and beyond.
  • Expand on and increase the number of gas-run thermal stations.
  • Adopt cleaner fossil fuels technology
  • Develop new energy technologies to harness available/abundant renewable energy sources.
  • Encourage physical incentives (tax rebate, free custom duties etc) on renewable energy parts and equipment.

 

RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY

In order to achieve sustainable energy provision, new renewable energy technologies must be developed and or existing ones improved on.

Table II – III, show that Nigeria is endowed with an enormous energy resource base, both conventional like fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal, fuel wood, large hydro, uranium etc) and no-conventional like solar, mini- & micro-hydro, non-woody biomass, wind etc. The potential of these energy sources to supply enough energy (electricity or non-electric) show that with proper planning appropriate technology, funds and strong political will, Nigeria should be able to provide enough energy for its people. Table VII show the expected energy from these sources based on normal and optimistic scenarios of the Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN).

Table VII – Targets for Renewable Electricity Supply in Nigeria measured in MW

  Resource 2007 2015 2025
1 Small Hydro 50 600 2,000
2 Solar PV 05 75 500
3 Solar Thermal 01 05
4 Biomass 50 400
5 Wind 01 20 40
Total 56 746 2,945
ECN High Growth Scenario Projections 7,000 14,000 29,000
Percentage share of projected energy demand 0.80 05 10

ECN 2005

To date Nigeria produces electric energy of 4,000MW from an installed capacity of 7000MW which is grossly inadequate to take care of the urban and peri-urban needs, not to talk of the rural, isolated people that constitute about 70% of the population and has little or no access to electricity supply and thereby depends on the non-electric energy supply to satisfy their needs.

The provision of electricity through fossil-fuels besides its attendant adverse environmental impacts, exhaustibility of fuels as they are non-renewable. Nigeria and in fact the whole world will continue to depend on fossil-fuel for their energy supply for many years to come. Therefore, for adequate, regular sustainable (electric and non-electric) energy supply Nigeria as a nation should  improve and expand the present supply system using cleaner fossil fuel technology as well as develop new technologies in renewable energy for additional power supply. Table VIII shows some of the existing thermal and hydropower stations in the country.

Table VIII – Existing Thermal and Hydropower Stations in the Country

  Stations Installed Cap (MW) Projected Contribution (MW) Remarks
Existing Stations Egbin 1,320 600 Rehabilitation works in progress. N2.6b is required
Delta 870 580
Sapele 1,020 150 Rehabilitation works in progress
Afam 920 410
Kainji 760 380 Rehabilitation works in progress funded by World Bank
Jebba 540 270
Shiroro 600 300
AES 270 270
Okpai 450 450
Omoku 100 50
Ajaokuta 100 40
Ijora 40 40 To be used during peak generation using diesel
Omotosho I 335 309 The station is not fully functional due to lack of gas (currently only 70MW contribution)
Olorunsogo I 335 309 The station is not fully functional due to lack of gas (currently only 39MW contribution)
NIPP Station Geregu I 414 414 The station is not fully functional due to lack of gas (currently only 100MW contribution)
Emergency Generation Using Strategic Fuels (LPFO, HPFO, Diesel & Crude Oil) 300 300 Total of 300MW can be injected into 11/300KV network from small generators using strategic fuels
Total 8,074 4,872  

ECN Project Report

Sustainable energy means (i) all renewable energy sources such as small hydro, solar energy, wind energy wave power, geothermal, bio-energy and tidal power and (ii) energy efficient technology or energy conservation.

For a sustainable future, the renewable energy technologies currently in existence must be revisited for modification or new ones developed to provide additional energy both electricity and non-electric energy for the rural and the urban poor areas. In the light of these technologies that are being promoted by energy research centres, institutions and agancies like Solar Energy Research Centres at Usman dan Fodio University, Sokoto and University of Nigeria, Nsuka include

  1. Solar Technologies: Solar radiation can be converted directly or indirectly to electricity as well as heat of low and very high temperatures depending on the load by thermal and photovoltaic technologies.

Thermal Technologies:     The conversion of solar radiation to heat of low and very high temperatures can be achieved using flat plate collectors and focusing (concentrating) collectors respectively.

The flat-plate collector is a simple technology which involves a flat metal plate painted black and placed in a box with cover glass and insulations on the sides and bottom to prevent heat loss. To improve the efficiency of this collector for higher temperatures the plate may be covered with a selective surface that absorbs solar radiation in wave length range 0.2 – 2.0mm and/or place mirrors on the sides to increase the quantum of incident flux. A typical flat-plate solar collector is shown in fig 3 below.

Fig. 3 –

Efforts made so far in the design, construction and testing of various solar thermal equipment lead to fabrication of solar cookers, solar water heaters and solar driers for drying agricultural products, solar distillation etc, these equipment are for low (less than 100˚C) applications.

 Fig. 4 – Renewable Energy Technology Equipments

 

Photothermal conversion of solar radiation to very high temperature heat (greater than 250˚C) and electricity generation is accomplished using focusing collectors of different designs and configurations shown in fig. 5. The concentrating parabolic collectors (CPC) are most common for the production of high temperature and pressure steam required for electricity generation. At times series of mirrors joined together called heliostats are used to concentrate solar radiator on absorber of a tower power plant as shown in fig. 6 below. For this high temperature applications, the absorber surface is usually coated with selective surface instead of ordinary black paint. This technology is being developed for high power electricity generation of several MWs.

 

Fig. 5 – Typical Concentrating Collectors

Fig. 6- Solar Power Tower

Photovoltaic Technologies:         Stand alone power plants encourage decentralized area based small energy packages of few KW which enjoys wide-spread application in the rural and urban-poor areas, in fact, the unique advantages of Solar PV include amongst others simplicity, reliability, modularity and minimal maintenance requirements.

It is important to note that photo-voltaic cell do convert sunlight directly to direct current (dc) electricity. For efficiency and practicability, multiple cells are connected together in series/parallel fashion and placed in a glass covered housing called a module. The modules shown in fig 7 are then connected together into arrays.

 Fig. 7 – Typical Solar PV Panel

PV can produce as much direct current electricity as desired through the addition of more modules PV technologies also provide guides and modular deployment, reduction in transmission and distribution loses because they are distributed generators with improved service reliability for consumers and can be located near or at consumers points. Some areas of applications of PV system are shown in Table IX.

Table IX – Various Applications of PV Systems in Nigeria

Electricity Generation Nominal Power Recommended RET Applications
150W PV Systems Rural Household Comm. Transmitters
150W – 5KW PV Systems, Wind Power Health Clinic, Schools, Water Pumping, Battery Charging, etc
5KW – 50KW PV Systems, Wind Power, Rural Micro Hydro, Biomass Residues
50KW – 500KW Wind Power, Micro Hydro, Biomass Residues Village Electrification, Small Scale Industries
Industrial Heat Low Temperature (less than 100˚C) Solar Collectors, Domestic Hot Water Heating- Schools, Homes, Clinics
High Temperature (greater than 100˚) Fuelwood, Biogas, Biomass Cooking Process Steam

 

PV cells are simple low risk technologies that can be installed virtually anywhere there is available light, like building roofs, motorways, communication repeater stations, clinics also used for irrigation-fed agric. PV solar systems are available on international market at power rating as low as 10W to few MW. A PV module now costs between $4 and $10 per peak watt with a life span of 20yrs and a very short payback period.

The only limitation to the wide spread dissemination of renewable energy technologies the much talked about solution towards sustainable development is the high initial cost. This becomes relevant when one generates electricity directly from sunlight using photovoltaic, and indirectly using photothermal converters. It is pertinent to note that the economy of scale of small PV (solar) cells less than one kilowatt (1KW) lend themselves to wide spread usage with the added advantage that the system not only pay back after some years with minimum maintenance but also does not require fuel for its operation. The economy of scale of large PV systems and photothermal converters do not allow their wide spread application because achieving the current use level of MW range will require a coordinated research, development and demonstration (RDD) programme with high level of funding. The two centres of excellence located at Usman dan Fodio University, Sokoto and University of Nigeria, Nsuka were established by the FG to exploit the full potential of solar energy for the country’s sustainable socio-economic development.

The efforts of these centres and other institutions and agencies to fabricate photovoltaic (solar) cell locally are still on the laboratory scale. A notable exception is the National Agency for Science and Engineering Infrastructure (NASENI) working hard to fabricate and mass produce solar cells for commercial purposes soonest. However, in the area of application and  awareness the centres, institutions, agencies and in particular Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN) have demonstrated the useful power of solar cells in the areas of lighting – in homes and the street. For instance ECN intends to supply and install many solar cells in the next few years. For demonstration fig 8 shows some examples of solar panels.

Fig. 8 – Solar Street Lights

 

  1. Hydro Technologies: There are two types of hydropower systems, the small and large hydro power. The SHP is usually the run-of-the-river type but when the flow is regulated by storages and reservoirs it can be of the storage reservoir type. Cause of this, any type of SHP can be developed. SHP is a simple technology which consists of penstock, turbine, regulator, generators alternator, and inverter. It can store excess power in batteries for later use. In case of reservoir type there is need for a dam. Local Content Initiative can assist in the future establishment, operation and maintenance of SHPs. The diverse advantages of SHP include provision of electricity to the rural population, poverty reduction, prevents rural-urban migration, job opportunity. Limitations of SHP include, sites are usually in remote areas, water shortage from run-of-the-river when diverted or due to drought. Table X shows available SHP in Nigeria.

Table X The Existing Small Hydro Schemes in Nigeria

S/No River State Installed Capacity (MW) Current Status
1 Bagel (I)(II) Plateau 1.02.0 Had been in operation since early 90s. Up till now, it is still functioning
2 Kurra Plateau 8.0 Had been in operation since early 90s. Up till now, it is still functioning
3 Lere (I)(II) Plateau 4.04.0 Had been in operation since early 90s. Up till now, it is still functioning
4 *Bakalori Sokoto 3.0 Operated for a short while and packed-up since 1993
5 *Tiga Kano 6.0 Dam construction – Completed,  Electro-mechanical equipment – Never installed
6 *Ikere Gorge, Iseyin Oyo 6.0 Dam construction – Completed,  Electro-mechanical equipment – Never installed
7 *Oyan Ogun 9.0 Dam construction – Completed,  Electro-mechanical equipment – Never installed
8 Dadinkowa Dam Gombe 34 Dam construction – Completed , Hydropower Component yet to be awarded
9 Challowawa Gorge Dam Kano 7.0 Dam construction – Completed,  Electro-mechanical equipment – Never installed

Source: Compiled by ECN

Fortunately Oyo State has a 6MW SHP under construction at Ikere Gorge in Iseyin as shown in Table X. Completion of this and survey for other sites will assist tremendously access to electricity in Oyo State. It is most likely that there exists possible sites for SHP in Ibadan and environs.

  1. Biomass Technologies: Biomass materials include cow dung, human excreta, agricultural waste. All over the world the techniques used for the conversion of organic biomass materials to solid, liquid and gaseous fuels include biogas, bio-fuels, woodstoves and briquetting technologies.

Biogas is composed of 60 – 70% methane (CH4), 23 – 38%, carbon dioxide (CO2) and 2% hydrogen (H2) with traces of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) produced by the anaerobic (in the absence of oxygen) digestion of organic materials. Biogas can be used for heating, cooking and lighting, particularly in the farm for agro industrial production. Examples of biogas digester are shown in fig. 9

Fig. 9 – Biogas Digesters

Another form of biogas digester is the floating drum and plastic balloon and tube types. Under the Africa 2000 low technology biogas programme, a community of 40 at Kwachiri in Kano State has been enjoying this facility with cow dung as substrate since 2003 for cooking.

Other designs of biogas equipment include the bag digester, the floating cover and the fixed dome, improved woodstoves, and combustors.

Electric power can be generated from biomass through combustion and gasification processes. Electric energy from biomass especially by gasification process has economic competitiveness with diesel generators in the power rating of few tens of KW, while above IMW combustion process which is a fully proven technique at the commercial level for wood and ligneous wastes like groundnut shells, sugarcane, rice husks, cotton seed pods becomes competitive.

The non-woody biomass constitute animal and human wastes, agricultural wastes which can be harnessed for the provision of gas thus promoting the development and use of efficient biomass energy technologies by the various centres and institution in particular at Usman dan Fodio University, Sokoto and University of Nigeria, Nsuka are shown in fig 10. Ethanol and biodesel derived from biomass are being produced at the renewable energy division of NNPC whose mandate include the large scale production, and purchase of available biofuels and the incorporation of same in Automotive Gas Oil to reduce dependence on PMS. Table VII shows the projected capacity of renewable energy resources in Nigeria measured in MW.

Fig. 10 – Biomass Energy Technologies

CHALLENGES

For solar, wind, mini- and micro-hydro and biomass to meet a large proportion of the global electricity demand all technology options must be kept open for their exploitation and development as economic options for base load electricity generation especially using the photothermal and photovoltaic technologies. PV technologies enjoy provision of limitless electricity from sunshine best suited for large and small power load demands (PLDs), since quantum of solar radiation available around the world can satisfy a rapid increased demand for solar power because the incident solar radiation on earth is enough to provide for global energy consumption 10,000 times ever. This then calls for heavy investments in the development and deployment of these technologies.

  • The conventional energy sources face exhaustion and thereby can consider energy conservation or efficiency as an alternative source of energy to extend the lifetime of the present energy sources.
  • Poor awareness of the role Renewable Energy Technology can play in creating easy access to electricity for the rural people on a sustainable basis.
  • Inadequate gas supply to power plants.
  • Need for Solar Architecture under the Passive Solar Energy Programme.
  • Poor funding of renewable energy development.

WAYFORWARD

The technology response needed to cope with the increasing evidence of the risk of global warming and climate change due to our excessive dependence on fossil fuels for almost all our energy needs must address key elements of a response that include

  • Improving the efficiency of existing fossil fuel fired plants using cleaner fossil-fuel technology;
  • Expanding the use of natural gas as a substitute for coal and oil in power plants provided adequate, regular and sustainable gas supply is assured;
  • Expanding the use of hydro power based on the deployment of mini and micro hydro resources where available;
  • Promoting other renewable energy sources in particular solar energy, biomass and to a certain extent wind where economically viable;
  • Accelerate investments in cost-effective measures for demand management and end use efficiency improvement or energy conservation;
  • Developing a strong, viable and sustainable capacity building programme in all energy technologies;
  • Develop nuclear power as is the most likely non-fossil fuel which can be deployed on a much larger scale;
  • The informal sector of the economy must be taken into account in the planning for additional energy (electricity and non-electric) supply;
  • Oyo State Government should embrace solar, biomass and small hydro technologies for improved power supply in the state;

CONCLUSION

As the main trust of energy usage in Nigeria is excessive consumption of low quality fuels like fuel-wood, charcoal and other non-woody biomass, every effort should be made to make accessible to the rural/urban poor high quality fuel like Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and electricity. In addition, the Energy Commission of Nigeria has initiated a programme on awareness and demonstration of renewable energy equipment that involve the provision and installation of small solar PV, solar thermal equipment like driers, water heater, distillator, biomass equipment – efficient wood stoves, biogas digesters and briquettes etc. Solar architecture is also being envisaged under the Passive Solar System (no moving parts involved but uses architecture to utilize solar energy) programme.

  • Energy security must be given serious consideration through the development of Renewable Energy Technologies (in solar, mini- and micro-hydro, wind and biomass) to assist in the provision of sustainable modern energy (electricity and non-electric) to reduce poverty level for at least 50% of the population by 2015 in line with MDG I (Millennium Development Goal).
  • The nation must improve and expand on the existing thermal and hydropower stations for the provision of additional modern energy.
  • The Federal Government must give full legal and financial supports for the actualization of the Renewable Energy Master Plan.

Finally, once again I thank the great people and distinguished sons and daughters of Oluyole Club for this honour to deliver this Annual Oluyole Lecture Series. I thank you all and God bless.

Thank you

Oke’badan Yio Gbe Wa O.

Reference

Energy Document from

Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN)

Energy – Conversion and utilization by J.H. Krenz

  • Year 2013 Lecture delivered on the 11th of January, 2014 – Kindling the bubbling Ibadan by Professor Oladapo A. Afolabi OON, CFR (Former Head of Service of the Federation.

Kindling the Bubbling Ibadan

Prof. Oladapo A. Afolabi, OON, CFR

Introduction

Ìbàdàn Kure
Ibadan beere ki o too wo o
Ibadan Mesiogo nile Oluyole
Nibi ole gbe e jare olohun
Ibadan kii gbonile bii ajeji
A kii waye ka ma larun kan lara
Ija igboro larun Ibadan

Translations

Ibadan, greetings
Ibadan, ask before you enter it
Ibadan Mesiogo is the home of Oluyole
Where the thieves get the better of the property-owners
Ibadan never blesses the natives as much as strangers
No one comes to earth without some disease
Civil disorder is the disease of Ibadan

(Oriki Ibadan culled from Ruth Watson’s Civil Disorder is the Disease of Ibadan: Chieftaincy and Civic Culture in a Yoruba City, 2005)

This piece attempts a historical examination of the growth and development of Ibadan from the earliest times to the present. This is with a view to showing that Ibadan has a unique rise to prominence among Nigerian cities but these unique features of its rise are beginning to be jettisoned in contemporary time. Ibadan is a Yoruba town in the present Oyo State of Southwestern Nigeria. It is West Africa’s largest city, Africa’s third largest city and Nigeria’s third most populous city after Lagos and Kano. Ibadan is not only a major commercial centre in Yorubaland in particular and Nigeria as a whole, but it is also a major political and cultural centre. In the history of Ibadan’s political development, the town grew from a mere military camp in the 19th century Yorubaland to become a major centre of political, commercial and cultural activities. For instance, it was, at different times, political headquarters of Oyo Provinces, Ibadan District, Western Provinces, Western Region, Western State and Oyo State during the colonial and post-colonial periods.

Ibadan is a well-researched Yoruba city as several scholars have written on different aspects of Ibadan history at various times. Some of the notable scholars of Ibadan history are S.A. Akintoye, Bolanle Awe, J.F.A. Ajayi, Saburi Biobaku, Ade Aderibigbe, Atanda, J.A., G.O. Ogunremi, G.O. Oguntomisin, Toyin Falola, Akin Alao, and a host of others. This is apart from several non-academic historical writings on Ibadan like those of Samuel Johnson, Oba I.B. Akinyele, Kemi Morgan, Olaniwun Ajayi, Adegoke Adelabu, etc. In contemporary time, some aspects of Ibadan history and development have been studied by several other scholars and writers. Notable among these is a collection by Late Professor G.O. Ogunremi under the auspices of Oluyole Club, Lagos in 2000 and a compendium by Professor Toyin Falola in 2012.

This piece examines the uniqueness of the rise of Ibadan to prominence in Nigeria and makes case for rejuvenation of the ideals and principles which aided and sustained its leadership role in modern Nigeria. This becomes necessary in the face of the seeming stagnation or loss of pace-setting achievements of the once virile, active, vibrant and ever-dynamic Ibadan city. This unfortunate situation is not unconnected with the erosion of the ideals, principles and philosophies which prompted, aided and sustained Ibadan’s rise to prominence in the past. Therefore, there is a need for re-assessment of the ideals, principles and philosophies which guided Ibadan’s historic and phenomenal rise through brief examination of its pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial historical development.

This paper is divided into six major parts with part one introducing the content of the paper and situating it within the context of the existing historical works on Ibadan. The second part examines the traditions of origin of Ibadan while the third part is focused on the fall of old Oyo and the consequent rise of Ibadan as a political force in 19th century Yorubaland. Part four deals with the nature of Ibadan imperialism and its impact on power politics in Yorubaland in the 19th century. The fifth part looks at Ibadan under colonial rule while the sixth part briefly assesses the political development of Ibadan since 1960. The last part concludes the paper.

Traditions of Origin and Early History of Ibadan

Like other Yoruba states and kingdoms, the accounts of early Ibadan history are preserved in oral traditions of the people. Ibadan traditions speak of three Ibadan contrary to widespread belief that Ibadan was only founded in the 19th century. In other words, there had been two Ibadan before the establishment of the third Ibadan after the Owu war in 1829. According to Falola, Lagelu, an Ife migrant hunter, founded the first Ibadan inhabited mostly by Egba Gbagura and other migrants from other parts of Yorubaland. The first Ibadan was situated at an area in Eleyele hill where he depended on Oro fruit and Eko which he took with the use of snail shell. This is the origin of the popular Ibadan praise song: “Ibadan omo ajorosun, omo afikarahun fo’rimu” meaning “Ibadan are the children of one who depended on oro fruits for their supper and of one who used the snail’s shell to take their eko food”.

After the fall of the first Ibadan founded by Lagelu, the survivors deserted the site and migrated to found the second Ibadan at a place not too far from the site of the first Ibadan near Eleyele hill. The second Ibadan is also said to suffer the same fate of destruction and desertion suffered by the first Ibadan. In specific terms, Ibadan traditions relate that the second Ibadan was deserted as a result of the abominable act of uncovering a masquerade. However, existing written records show that the second Ibadan was destroyed by the allied forces of Ijebu, Oyo and Ife after the Owu-Ife war.

Historically, the Ibadan city known today developed from the third Ibadan which was founded around 1829 and inhabited by groups of warriors after the Owu war. The third Ibadan developed at an area around Basorun Oluyole’s residence in Oja Oba. The political crises and the wars in Northern Yorubaland which led to the final collapse of old Oyo Empire were a prelude to the establishment of the third Ibadan. As a consequence of these upheavals, some of the displaced people migrated and settled in unaffected towns like Ede, Iwo, Osogbo and so on. Significantly, the strong warriors who had participated in the wars did not return to their original homes but rather resorted to founding new states.

Ibadan was one of such states founded by groups of warriors. It originally began as a temporary settlement and war camp (budoogun) about 1829 for the allied armies of Ife, Ijebu and Oyo which had destroyed Owu during Owu-Ife war, the first major war in southern Yorubaland in the 19th century. These warriors dispersed the earlier Egba settlers in Ibadan and made it their base where they launched further military assaults on neighbouring Egba villages. After this period, the town began to attract warriors from the other Yoruba towns and it eventually emerged as a strong military settlement.

At the new Ibadan military settlement, there was no generally-acknowledged political leadership but the different military groups were organised under a warrior who led them into the settlement. As time went on, the Ife military groups led by Maye Okunade, the Commander of the Ife Army during the OwuWar, began to exercise some level of military and political influence in the settlement. In fact, Falola, attested to the fact that Maye Okunade assumed the position of an overseer or coordinator of all the various sections in the Ibadan community. However, it must be emphasised that Maye Okunade did not emerge as a powerful political authority or a generally-acknowledged ruler of Ibadan during this period. His position could not be likened to that of an Oba or Baale as he had no palace, no council of chiefs, no crown, no tax collectors or officials and other paraphernalia of office. As a result of the absence of a recognised political leader, life in Ibadan during this period was characterised by lawlessness, street fighting, stealing, indiscipline and oppression of the populace by the soldiers.

Significantly, the late 1830s saw the transformation of Ibadan from agglomeration of different settlers into a permanent town dominated by Oyo groups. The Egba groups left Ibadan in 1830 to found Abeokuta as a result of a major fight between them and the Ife groups in Ibadan. The departure of the Egba to their new home in Abeokuta left the Oyo and Ife groups as the two leading groups in Ibadan. Similarly, the war between the Oyo and Ife groups in Ibadan and the consequent victory of the Oyo groups following the defeat of Maye Okunade resulted in the exclusive domination and control of Ibadan by the Oyo groups in the 1830s. During the war, the Oyo groups enjoyed the support of Kurumi of Ijaye as well as military troops from Iwo and Ede.

With the exit of the Ife from Ibadan, the Oyo groups decided to make Ibadan a permanent settlement as opposed to a temporary camp it used to be before this period. The final collapse of old Oyo, the emergence of New Oyo founded by Prince Atiba(Later AlaafinAtiba) and the general insecurity which engulfed Yorubaland during this period were to give the new Ibadan a new pivotal role in the power-politics in Yorubaland afterwards.

The Rise of Ibadan as a Military Power in the 19thCentury Yorubaland

Prior to the 19th Century when it finally collapsed, the old Oyo Empire was the largest and the most powerful of all the polities established by the Yoruba. At the height of Oyo’s power its territory covered a substantial part of Yorubaland and extended to Dahomey and parts of Togo and the present day Ghana. The rise and expansion of old Oyo was based on its monarchical political system built on a well-defined unwritten constitution whose built-in checks and balances prevented the monarch from becoming despotic and autocratic. This political system guided the kingdom to its greatness until the second half of the 18th century when Basorun Gaha, the Head of the Oyo Mesi, exploited the constitutional lapses to usurp the political power in the empire.

The constitutional crises that followed from 1754 when Gaha became the Basorun and 1774 when he was killed during the reign of Alaafin Abiodun were to create political problems for the kingdom after 1789 when Abiodun died. The political crises resulted in breakdown of central authority and loss of grip control on the vassal states. Afonja, the Oyo’s governor of Ilorin was the first to exploit the weakness of the central monarchy to revolt against Oyo under Alaafin Aole and with the help of the Fulani Jihadists achieved the independence of Ilorin in 1817. Other vassal states of Oyo also followed suit and Oyo lost a great number of its dependants. It was not long before the Fulani, under Abdul Salami, the son of Alimi, took over Ilorin and made it a frontier Emirate of the Sokoto Caliphate after defeating Afonja and his forces.

After the capture of Ilorin, the Fulani began to attack other Yoruba towns. They succeeded in destroying what remained of old Oyo in 1836 and its population dispersed to neighbouring Yoruba states. Prince Atiba led what remained of the displaced Oyo people to found new Oyo at Atiba around 1837. Quite expectedly, the collapse of Oyo created a power-vacuum in Yorubaland which the various successor-states vied to fill. The three major successor-states of Oyo were Ibadan, Abeokuta and Ijaye. Of all the successor-states, Ibadan, had by the 1860s become a major power in Yorubaland controlling vast areas of Yorubaland. The emergence of Ibadan as an imperial power in Yorubaland took certain historical course.

In the first instance, the rise of Ibadan as a political force in Yorubaland could not be divorced from its unique political system which recognised personal ability and capability of individual soldiers as against recognition for royalty and divine kingship. In other words, Ibadan system held that leadership was a function of what the individual possessed in excess of those who competed with him. In pre-colonial Ibadan, leadership was earned and not ascribed. Describing Ibadan political system, Elizabeth Isichei notes that: “Ibadan was a military republic and a classic instance of a political system open to talents.” It maintained an open door policy to strangers, attracting and welcoming them irrespective of their places of origin. In addition, many people were lured to Ibadan due to its huge commercial potentialities, its liberal attitude towards strangers and the opportunity which it gave the adventurous people to prove their worth and use their talents to become notable in the society.

It is significant to stress that Ibadan rejected entirely the traditional system of succession to power and influence through hereditary but only recognised man’s proven ability as a soldier as the determining factor of his success and political ascendancy. There were two parallel hierarchies of military and civilian chiefs, up which individuals could move by promotion. The apex civilian ruler of the town was called Baale while the military ruler was referred to as Balogun. The Balogun title holder had lieutenants and subordinates with titles such as Otun Balogun, Osi Balogun and so on. This arrangement was no doubt simple political system lacking specialised offices and structural differentiation like old Oyo and other ancient Yoruba kingdoms. Therefore, Ibadan grew rapidly as a major town geared towards wars and further expansion.

The second factor which brought Ibadan to the centre stage of Yoruba power politics in the 19th century apart from its unique political system was the special responsibility put on its shoulders by the Alaafin Atiba of new Oyo. Alaafin Atiba was an astute diplomat with a perceptive mind to understand early enough the need to play on the traditional attitude of venerating Oyo in the new dispensation in Yorubaland during this period. He quickly recognised the valour and determination of both Kurumi of Ijaye and Oluyole of Ibadan to build up political edifices that would overwhelm and subsume new Oyo. Therefore, in a deft diplomatic move, Alaafin Atiba conferred the titles of Are-Ona-Kakanfoand Bashorun (both Oyo titles) on Kurumi and Oluyole respectively with clear military mandates. Are Kurumi of Ijaye was to take charge of safe-keeping Western Yorubaland while Bashorun Oluyole was defend the territories east of the upper Ogun river. In other words, Ibadan was expected to defend Yorubaland from the onslaught of the Fulani Jihadists from Ilorin.

Ibadan as Saviour/Defender of Yorubalandfrom the Fulani Jihadists, 1840-1893

With this nationalistic mandate, Ibadan forces set its machinery in force to defend Yorubaland from the onslaught and incursion of the Fulani Jihadists from Ilorin area. At the Osogbo battle of 1838-1840, the Ibadan forces recorded a resounding victory over the Fulani and pushed the Ilorin armies back northwards till beyond Ikirun, just south of Ofa. The significance of this battle was that it put a stop to external aggression of the Fulani forces in Yorubaland. More significantly, the Ibadan’s defeat of the Fulani forces in Osogbo in 1840 opened a new chapter in the history of power relations in Yorubaland – the era of Ibadan imperialism. As indicated earlier, the Ibadan forces forced the Fulani forces back to Offa area in 1840 when they (Fulani Jihadists from Ilorin) were defeated at Osogbo.

Indeed, it was at this battle that Ibadan confirmed its military and political ascendancy in Yorubaland. Ibadan’s success at Osogbo gave it a peep into the eastern territories and encouraged empire building. Ibadan garrisons not only stayed permanently in these areas to checkmate Fulani onslaught but responded to “invitations” from different Ekiti states for military assistance against Fulani invaders. In fact, town after town where the Fulani-Ilorin forces were expelled, Ibadan established firm control. As a consequence, the aftermath of the battle of Osogbo was the emergence of Ibadan as a saviour of the Yoruba and as an imperial power in Yorubaland.

According to Abiodun Adediran (2000), after the 1840 defeat of the Fulani at Osogbo, an administrative reorganisation put the Ibadan state in a perpetual state of military preparedness. By the late 1860s, Ibadan, in its imperial mood, had gained the control of “most of Ekiti, most of Ijesa, almost all of Akoko and much of Igbomina in addition to the vast Osun territories and the Ife kingdom”. Importantly, the defeat of Ijaye by the Ibadan forces in the Ibadan-Ijaye war of 1860-1865 made the Ibarapa area come under Ibadan while the upper Ogun region, though under the tutelage of the Alaafin of Oyo, was under Ibadan effective control. By the last quarter of the 19th century, Ibadan had succeeded in establishing an imperial authority and framework covering an area of Yorubaland, more expansive than the old Oyo Empire.

In describing the nature of Ibadan imperialism in Yorubaland, it must not be thought that the subject states in different parts of Yorubaland submitted themselves to Ibadan authority willfully. Rather, right from the inception of Ibadan imperialism, there had always been resentment of it by the subject states as well as its neighbours particularly Egba and Ijebu. At the peak of Ibadan’s imperial authority in the mid-1870s, its empire comprised Ibarapa, Ife, Osun, Ijesa, Ekiti, Akoko and most of Igbomina territories.

Like all imperial power, the major goal of Ibadan imperialism was maximum economic benefits. To achieve this, Ibadan established elaborate administrative system to control and administer its conquered states. The Ibadan conquered towns were overseen by Ibadan chiefs specifically referred to as Ajeleby Bolanle Awe (1964) who served as linkman between Ibadan and the vassal states. The main duties of the Ajele was to ensure the loyalty of the vassal states as well as making sure that the vassals paid regular tributes, occasional levies and general contributions to Ibadan war efforts. An important aspect of Ibadan imperialism was that the upkeep of an Ajele, his family. A retinue of messengers and attendants from the metropolis was the obligation of each vassal state in addition to meeting up with the economic and military demands of the imperial Ibadan. This explains why some of the Ajele became high-handed in the later years of Ibadan imperialism.

The impressive imperial administration of Ibadan Empire sustained the status-quo for several years in spite of the opposition of the conquered states. It took the alliance of all Ibadan conquered states in different parts of Yorubaland sixteen years to fight for their independence in the wars to end all wars. The alliance of the Ibadan conquered states popularly known as Ekitiparapo engaged their Ibadan overlords in protracted wars between 1877 and 1893. After series of wars and stalemates, the combined efforts of the Alaafin of Oyo, the Ooni of Ife, the Awujale of Ijebu, some Christian missionaries and other agents of the British colonial government resulted in a peace treaty in 1886 which ended the wars.

The 1886 peace treaty actually meant the end of Ibadan imperial authority and the dismemberment of the erstwhile Ibadan Empire. In 1893, Ibadan was formally brought under the British colonial government when it signed treaty of protection with Britain. The 1893 treaty with the British colonial government meant the end of the independence of Ibadan and its transformation to a British Colony. To drive home this point, Captain R.L. Bower arrived in Ibadan in December 1893 to assume duties as the first British Resident or Travelling Commissioner for the interior of Yorubaland.

It is important to state here that, though the 1886 and 1893 treaties resulted in the dismemberment of Ibadan imperial empire and end of Ibadan’s independence respectively, it did not lead to the end of political dominance of this great Yoruba city. In contrast, it prepared the city for another important political position in Yorubaland in the emergent colonial period.

Ibadan under Colonial Rule, 1893-1960: From Imperial State to a Regional Headquarters

Ibadan effectively came under the British colonial rule in 1893. Right from this period, Ibadan assumed a pivotal political position in Yorubaland as the seat of the British colonial Resident for the whole of Yorubaland as well as the foremost state and the de facto head of all Yoruba states. Ibadan was made the headquarters of the eastern district of the Lagos Protectorate which comprised Ibadan, Oyo and Ife areas in 1906. Later in the colonial period, several older Yoruba states, particularly Oyo, rose to challenge the political dominance of Ibadan in Yoruba politics. This was made possible by the fact that the establishment of colonial rule distorted and perverted civic authority in Ibadan leading to opening of Ibadan to external interference from the Alaafin who wanted a resuscitation of Oyo’s pre-1837 authority over Ibadan.

Interestingly, successive Alaafin used the opportunity of the Indirect Rule policy of the colonial government which was based on effective centralised monarchical system and the succession disputes to the Baaleship in Ibadan to achieve a greater political status for the Alaafin in colonial politics in Yorubaland. Significantly, the emergence of Captain William A. Ross as the first District Commissioner for Oyo in 1906 contributed immensely to the revival of the ancient powers of the Alaafin over Ibadan during the colonial period. Considering the fact that Captain Ross was convinced that the Alaafin was a greater potential asset for the British administration in Yorubaland, he worked tirelessly for enhanced political status of Oyo over Ibadan up to 1931 when he was relieved of his position in Nigerian colonial enterprise.

The emergence of Mr. H.L. Ward-Price as the new Resident Commissioner for Oyo paved the way for a concerted effort to request for the dissolution of Oyo hegemony over Ibadan by the Ibadan Progressive Union which had been in the forefront of revamping the image and glory of Ibadan since 1930 when it was inaugurated. In 1933, to the chagrin and disaffection of Oyo, Ibadan Division became the headquarters of an independent Native Authority. Furthermore, in 1934, the headquarters of the Chief Commissioner of the Western Provinces and the Oyo Province were transferred from Oyo to Ibadan. To cap it all, in 1936, the title of the traditional head of Ibadan was changed from Baale to Olubadan (Oba). In sum, the tenure of Ward Price as Resident of Oyo Province considerably enhanced the status of Ibadan vis-à-vis her relationship with Oyo.

In 1939 when the Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria was reorganised into two – Western Provinces and Southern Provinces, Ibadan became the headquarters of the Ibadan Province of the larger Western Provinces. Furthermore, in 1946 following the enactment of the Richards Constitution, Ibadan was retained as the headquarters of the Western Provinces which covered all the Yoruba-speaking areas of modern Nigeria as well as the Edo and Delta regions. The same feat was achieved in 1952 when the Western Province was renamed Western Region and became a political unit according to the provisions of the Macpherson Constitution rather than administrative unit which it was made under the Richards Constitution of 1946. Ibadan remained the political headquarters of not only Yorubaland throughout the colonial period but also the political capital of the whole of Western Region (inclusive of Edo and Delta areas) till 1963 when the Mid-West Region was created.

Apart from becoming a major political centre in colonial Yorubaland, Ibadan also benefited immensely from the social and economic policies of the colonial government. According to Olukoju, Ibadan was one of the early cities which benefitted from the construction of rail lines by the colonial government in Nigeria. Beginning in 1896 at Iddo in Lagos, a railway line was extended into the hinterland, reaching Abeokuta in 1898, Ibadan in 1901, Osogbo in 1907 and Jebba on the Niger in 1909. The railway was a major factor in the urbanisation of Ibadan and other cities in Nigeria. Similarly, the choice of Ibadan as administrative headquarters of the Western Province by the Colonial Government resulted in the construction of administrative buildings, schools, hospitals and other physical or social infrastructure. In fact, by 1917 when the colonial government enacted the Township Ordinance, Ibadan was classified as one of the 19 Second Class Townships along with some other prominent Nigerian cities while Lagos was the only First Class Township. Moreover, in terms of provision of social amenities like pipe borne water, electricity and modern Western educational facilities, Ibadan was at a vantage position among Nigerian cities.

By 1960 when Nigeria attained political independence from Britain, Ibadan had become a major political and commercial centre not only in Yorubaland but also in Nigeria as a whole. It ranked second after Lagos as one of the most populous urban cities in Nigeria with a population of 627, 379 people (1960 Estimate).

A City of Many “Firsts”: The Place of Ibadan in Nigerian Politics since the 1940s

The independence of Nigeria in 1960 did not occasion any change in the administrative and political structure of Nigeria. At independence, the country had three regions – North (Kaduna), West (Ibadan), East (Enugu) and a federal capital based in Lagos. It was only when the Mid- Western Region was created in 1963 with headquarters in Benin that Edo and Delta areas were carved out of territories administered from Ibadan. Afterwards, there were incessant creations of more states from the existing four regions after the fall of Nigeria’s First Republic in 1960 and long years of military rule henceforth.

To begin with, Nigeria was restructured into twelve states in 1967 on the eve of the civil war by the Head of the Federal Military Government but the Western Region was not politically or administratively affected. It was only renamed Western State with headquarters left in Ibadan. In 1976, the Western State was broken into four states namely Oyo, Ogun, Ondo with headquarters at Ibadan, Abeokuta and Akure respectively by the Federal Military Government of Generals Murtala Muhammed and Olusegun Obasanjo. Also, in 1991 when the military Head of State, General Ibrahim Babangida created nine new states, Osun State was carved out of Oyo State with headquarters in Osogbo. The creation of new states, particularly the 1976, 1991 and 1996 experiences, greatly reduced the area of political influences of Ibadan as new capitals like Abeokuta, Akure, Osogbo and Ado-Ekiti became new centres of administrative and political activities. These places were hitherto under the political administration of Ibadan.

In spite of the emergence of new administrative, political and industrial centres in the area previously administered from Ibadan, the political and administrative importance of Ibadan in modern Nigerian/Yoruba politics and economy has not been completely eroded. It has continued to grow from strength to strength. A few examples of how Ibadan has been headquarters of socio-economic and political activities in modern Nigeria will suffice here. For instance, Ibadan played host to the 1953 Constitutional Conference in Nigeria during which federalism was introduced to Nigerian politics in preparation for its endorsement in the 1954 Lyttleton Constitution.

Among many other things, Ibadan was fortunate to host the first university in Nigeria, that is, the University of Ibadan, which was established in 1948 as the College of the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford, United Kingdom. It became an autonomous university after the nation’s independence in 1960 and has since remained the premier university in Nigeria. The University of Ibadan has not only produced thousands of graduates who had held positions in top echelons of politics, economy, commerce and business and other spheres of national life in Nigeria but had also produced notable academics and administrators for other Nigerian universities. The University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan is also the first teaching hospital Nigeria because the University College Ibadan began the first training of medical doctors in Nigeria when the university opened in 1948.

Furthermore, the first internationally–acknowledged standard sport stadium in West Africa, the Liberty Stadium, now Obafemi Awolowo Stadium was built by the Western Regional government in Ibadan in 1960. Also, the first television and radio stations in Africa, the Western Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation (WNBC),was set up in Ibadan in 1955 by the same administration of Chief Obafemi Awolowo. Moreover, other Nigeria’s pioneering facilities in Ibadan include the first tallest building and skyscraper in Nigeria popularly known as Cocoa House, the first modern Housing Estate at Bodija and a befitting government secretariat and parliament building in Agodi, Ibadan.

It is also significant to stress that Ibadan and his people were central to major events which had shaken the corporate existence of modern Nigeria at different period of its history. Apart from the previously cited example of the 1953 Constitutional Conference, the first major political crisis which had continued to be relevant in national discourse i.e. the Action Group crisis between Chief Obafemi Awolowo and Chief S.L. Akintola in 1962 actually started in Ibadan but later affected the whole nation as a result of federal government declaration of state of emergency in the region. The internal AG crisis became so fundamental to national politics that later crises which shook Nigeria to its very foundations were linked to it. Such later national crises like the 1963 census palaver, the 1964 Federal Elections problems, the 1965 Western Regional Electoral disturbances, the military coups of January and July 1966 and the 1967-1970 Civil War. Most prominent among the crises that led to the collapse of the First Republic in January 1966 was the aftermath of the 1965 Western Regional elections of December 1965 of which Ibadan stood at the centre stage as the seat of the government of Western Region.

In addition, Ibadan was also a centre-stage of Nigeria’s national politics in the First and Second Republics from 1960-1966 and 1979-1983 respectively. The city produced several finest Nigerian politicians and statesmen of the two epochs in Nigerian political history. Although some of these politicians who featured prominently in Ibadan and national politics might not be Ibadan indigenes but they made Ibadan their political bases and second homes because of the centrality of the town to national political issues. These statesmen include Chief Obafemi Awolowo, Chief S.L.A. Akintola, Adegoke Adelabu, Remi Fani-Kayode, Adisa Akinloye, Richard Akinjide, Bola Ige, Omololu Olunloyo, Lamidi Adedibu, etc. These and others too numerous to mention here were movers and shakers of Nigerian politics in the First and Second Republics and were either indigenes of Ibadan or based at Ibadan at different periods in their political careers.

In contemporary time, Ibadan is a leading city in Nigeria in terms of politics, economy and basic social amenities. It is home to eleven local government areas. It is doubtful whether any other single city in Nigeria can boast of such number of LGAs within its metropolis. In traditional Yoruba politics in Oyo State, the Olubadan is not only a First Class (Grade A) Oba but also a force to reckon within the Oyo State Council of Traditional Rulers with prominent other Yoruba Obas like the Alaafin of Oyo and Soun of Ogbomoso.

However, Ibadan is gradually losing its erstwhile vigour, respect and enviable position in the comity of Nigerian cities in contemporary time due to obvious socio-economic and political reasons which have to do with departure from its founding ideals and principles as will be discussed shortly.

The Bubbling and Lively Ibadan: The Basic Principles and Ideals of Its Rise and Sustenance

While the greatness of Ibadan is a generally acknowledged fact, the factors of its greatness though not too clearly understood, factors of its greatness can be encapsulated in the following summarized principles.

Personal Ability as the Spirit and Soul of Ibadan: Not many people know that the spirit and soul of Ibadan is personal ability, capability, bravery, skill, courage and valour and not royalty, family background, ethnicity or sectional sentiments. These attributes were adopted by the founders of Ibadan and the result was the continuous rise of the town. This is why in Ibadan anybody can become the Olubadan irrespective of his original hometown provided he has paid his dues through unreserved contributions to the development of the town. This also explains why the succession to Olubadan throne is unique in Yorubaland and is devoid of tussle or rancour which characterise other parts of Yorubaland. There is no hereditary emergence to the Olubadan stool. In other words, the spirit of Ibadan is that of “Omo Akin” i.e. “A Brave Man”.This is why every true Ibadan indigene is a detribalised person who strives to become great by dint of hard work, determination, diligence and sheer dedication.

Religious Tolerance: At the heart of Ibadan’s greatness was religious tolerance. People were free to profess any form of religion in Ibadan and there was a high level of inter-religious interactions and encounters. The early Ibadan played hosts to both Islamic and Christian religions and these religions were embraced without force while many people stuck to their traditional Yoruba religions like Ogun, Sango, etc. Muslim/Christian marriages were common in the old Ibadan and religious conflagrations were not common. Religions were very strong in the minds of the people and they influenced social order and peaceful co-existence in Ibadan. This facilitated a peaceful atmosphere which is necessary for meaningful development.

Intellectual Development/Pursuit: The root of intellectual development in Ibadan was military apprenticeship and it was known as training ground for military generals. Historically, Ogedengbe, the Ijesa war hero, was trained in Ibadan ditto for other military giants in the 19th century Yorubaland. In modern times, Ibadan was the intellectual capital of Nigeria. It hosted the first University in the country and was home to many pioneering missionary schools. Many notable Arabic and Islamic schools with teachers and students from different parts of the Muslim world were also in Ibadan since the 1920s. Ibadan produced many scholars of Western education and theological scholars like renowned Bishops, Priests and Sheiks.

Industrial Development: Ibadan had a very strong economic and industrial consciousness right from pre-colonial times. Situated in a semi-savannah region, it featured prominently in the trans-Saharan trade to the North of Nigeria with the Nupe, Borgu and Hausa/Fulani people. When it was the turn of Atlantic slave trade, Ibadan played middle-man role between Oyo suppliers of slaves and Ijebu/Egba/Dahomey traders with the Europeans at the coast. Ibadan also generated huge income from tributes and booties during the period of its imperial rule in Yorubaland. These were used in developing the town before the advent of colonial rule. During the colonial period,it benefitted from road networks, railway, airport and other modern facilities with significant consequences for its economy and commerce.

Political Vibrancy/Prowess: Ibadan is noted for an uncommon political vibrancy and prowess. As a war camp which developed into a modern city, the traditional Ibadan has a unique political system based on recognition of personal skill and ability. The succession to the throne of Olubadan is by promotion from lower to higher rungs of the political ladder. There is no royal family or ruling houses as we have in other parts of Yorubaland. Every individual has equal access to power provided he can distinguish himself in his professional endeavours. Ibadan never practised hereditary rulership. From a mere war camp, Ibadan rose to a very powerful military state, imperial overlord, regional headquarters, state capital and West African largest city under a period of less than 200 years of its existence (i.e. New Ibadan, 1829-2013).The overall leadership in Ibadan changed from Balogun, Aare, Baale and to Olubadan in 1936 during the colonial period. It started as an Oyo town but it supplanted Oyo Kingdom and became the economic and political headquarters of Yorubaland till date. It played major role in modern Nigerian political history. Ibadan alone has about two/thirds of the population of Oyo State and is headquarters to eleven local government areas.

Cultural Cosmopolitanism and Philanthropism: Ibadan is a cosmopolitan city with inhabitants from different parts of Nigeria and beyond. The people of Ibadan have a very deep sense of hospitality and accommodation. In fact, it is very difficult to pinpoint an Ibadan indigene because there is Oyo Ibadan, Iwo Ibadan, Egba Ibadan, Ijebu Ibadan and even “Hausa Ibadan”, “Igbo Ibadan” or “Ijaw Ibadan” as the case may be. This is the Ibadan of the dream of the founding fathers where everybody has a level-playing ground and there is no ethnic, religious or sectional discrimination. Ibadan elite of old were also known for impressive philanthropic gestures and this explains why they were able to enjoy massive supports from the general populace. Among prominent Ibadan philanthropists, such names as Adebisi Giwa, Salami Agbaje, Olayiwola Osuolale Balogun, Oyetunji Oseni Bello, Kola Daisi, Lamidi Adedibu, Alao Arisekola, N.O. Idowu, Bode Akindele, Mrs. Joko Ayoade, Alhaja Sulia Adedeji and a host of others.
All the above-stated factors are the ideals of true and original Ibadan which have been laid down by successive generations of Ibadan peoples and which have continued to sustain its leading place in modern Nigeria.

The Stagnant Ibadan: Betrayal, Abuse and Jettisoning of Ibadan Ideals and Principles

That contemporary Ibadan is not as bubbling or active as it used to be is not an overstatement. Why has Ibadan not been as active and bubbling the way it was time past. The current stagnancy and inactiveness of Ibadan today are traceable to the betrayal and jettisoning of the noble ideals and principles on which Ibadan was built. This is briefly examined below:

Personal Ability has been sacrificed for Patronage: In Ibadan today, people no longer uphold the erstwhile Ibadan spirit of personal skill, ability and bravery in the quest for social, economic and political relevance. There is compromise of everything that Ibadan is known for in politics, economy and other spheres of life. Discrimination of all sorts now pervades every nook and cranny of Ibadan. There is political, ethnic, religious, professional and other forms of segregation in contemporary Ibadan and this does not augur well for Ibadan, a one-time mover and shaker of the politics and economy of the country. Today, Ibadan affairs have become localized and the city only thrives on old glory and achievements. It now makes little or no impact on national and regional political and economic affairs.

Religious Discriminations/Crises have overshadowed Religious Tolerance: Sadly enough, every religious group in Ibadan today wants to outshine the other. Religious tolerance has given way to religious bickering, hostility and hatred. Inter-religious marriage is no longer popular and people disown their children for getting married to people of other faiths. Religion these days is of the head and not of the heart as crimes and immorality are on the rise in the face of religious expansion. Every shop and house has been turned to places of worship (churches and mosques) but vices are also on the increase – what a high level of hypocrisy?

Materialism has replaced Intellectual Pursuit/Development: Just like in other Nigerian cities today, material gains have replaced intellectual pursuit among Ibadan youths and adult, men and women. Everybody today wants to be affluent without care for education and intellectual bases. Many children and youths are out of school or are not getting educated because of dearth of good quality schools. Many Ibadan youths today do not learn trades or undergo professional apprenticeship again but prefer to be touts and Agbero at the major motor parks in many parts of the city. There are so many primary, secondary and tertiary educational institutions in Ibadan today but how many Ibadan indigenes are making waves in these institutions as staff and students? It is unfortunate that Ibadan is fast losing its position as the intellectual capital of Nigeria as the University of Ibadan, The Polytechnic Ibadan and other state-owned institutions are beginning to play second fiddles to other Nigerian universities, polytechnics and institutions. Also, many Arabic schools and other vocational centres in Ibadan which used to be the pride of the city are gradually being deserted by pupils and scholars.

Industrial Development at low Ebb: The basic economic and industrial potentials of Ibadan have not been adequately tapped in present day Nigeria. Ibadan lost its economic and industrial viability to parts of Lagos which fell under the government of Western Region. These places include Ikeja-Ebute Metta-Yaba axis which were greatly industrialized by the government of the Action Group. Ibadan economic and industrial development had been left for indigenous private businessmen and merchants for a very long time. This is why most industries in Ibadan such as fruit canning, soap and detergent, plastics, metal fabrication, foam-rubber, printing and publishing, agricultural machinery, concrete tiles, tyre and rubber producing industries are owned by individual businessmen such as Chief Adeola Odutola and other prominent Nigerians. There have not been much of large scale government (federal and state) industrialization efforts in Ibadan over the years.

Political Bankruptcy has replaced Political Vibrancy/Prowess: The vibrancy and prowess associated with pre-colonial and colonial Ibadan politics are gradually waning. In spite of huge population, land mass, rich historical experiences, economic viability and other ingredients, Ibadan has not been able to navigate the political landscape of Nigeria to realize its full political potentials in modern times. Ibadan alone is bigger and more populous that many states of the Federation and yet it has not succeeded in its dream of an Ibadan state. It was even difficult for an Ibadan indigene to become the governor of Oyo State until very recently. Contemporary Ibadan politicians and political elite are not dexterous enough to bring home political fortunes to their fatherland but engage in inter-party hostilities and enmity. We have failed to learn from the history of Ibadan political vibrancy and prowess of prominent Ibadan politicians and leaders of old.

Identity Issueand Personal Aggrandizement isaffecting Cultural Cosmopolitanism and Philanthropism: The cosmopolitan nature of Ibadan is a point of anger for many Ibadan indigenes today. The non-indigenous people are seen as preventing their access to resources and opportunities in their hometown. Whereas the truth is that because many Ibadan youths have refused to be equipped adequately for challenges and competitions, they find themselves in junior positions and menial jobs while non-indigenes occupy positions that are considered highly placed. Philanthropism has also been abused in modern Ibadan as many able-bodied men and women now seek money and food from the affluent people day and night. Street begging is now rampant among Ibadan indigenes and they number more that the Hausa in street begging in modern Ibadan. This is not healthy for a rumbling and active Ibadan.
Kindling the Bubbling Ibadan: Practical Solutions/Recommendations

In our efforts to rekindle modern Ibadan, conscious attempts must be made to re-orientate and remind all Ibadan indigenes and perhaps non-indigenes as well, in the basic principles and ideals upon which Ibadan’s greatness was built and sustained. Premised on the history of the development of Ibadan examined above, the following are my humble submissions and recommendations for kindling for regaining Ibadan prominence in Nigeria:

●We must begin to recognize personal ability as against royalty, patronage or sentiments that pervade our politics, economy and other spheres of life in contemporary Ibadan

● Crave for material wealth and gain can be minimized if priority and recognition is given to honesty, probity, integrity and trustworthiness

● We must not compromise or abuse any of the ideals and principles espoused by the founders of Ibadan and upon which Ibadan greatness was based.

●We must not localize Ibadan affairs and but strive to identify with all political groups so that Ibadan is once again placed at the centre of national politics rather than narrowing Ibadan to parochial Oyo or Yoruba politics.

● Religious or ethnic discriminations of any forms or kinds must be jettisoned if Ibadan

●Educational pursuit must be made a top priority for all Ibadan youths and conscious efforts must be made to assist and support indigent but brilliant Ibadan sons and daughters at all levels of education at home and abroad. The example of the new Technical University (Tech-U) Ibadan is sufficed here. Deliberate efforts must be made to make the university work as a unique model of public-private partnership for which it is designed. This would make Ibadan regain its pioneer educational position in Nigeria as a city from where new things always emerge and as the intellectual capital of Nigeria. Existing educational institutions in Ibadan must also be strengthened and repositioned for better output and performances. These may include Ibadan Grammar School, Ibadan Boy’s High School, Wesley College, Government College, Loyola College, Queen’s College, The Polytechnic Ibadan, University of Ibadan and a host of others.

● Industrialization agenda must be aggressively pursued in modern Ibadan. Since agriculture is the mainstay of the economy of Ibadan and majority of our rural people are still farmers, agro-allied industries may be our starting point where products like juice, tomato, flour, vegetable etc are processed for local consumption and for export. Labour supply, market outlets, machineries, capital, land and other production factors can be easily sourced and acquired within Ibadan and Oyo State at large.

● Politicians and political elite of Ibadan extraction must eschew politics of bitterness and run people-centred governments. There should be less of political rancor and hostility and Ibadan must be seen as a property of all irrespective of different political affiliations. This way, all-round development will come the way of Ibadan in modern Nigerian politics. We should endeavour that if an Ibadan state is not feasible now and an Ibadan governor cannot be achieved at all times, then we must strive for a governor that would be sympathetic of Ibadan’s cause and interests at all times.

● Identity issue should be pursued with great care so that Ibadan would not lose its cosmopolitan nature. While our people must fight for their indigenous rights and privileges they must be prepared adequately to compete favourably with the non-indigenes for professional and executive positions in government-owned agencies and establishments in Ibadan in particular and Oyo State and Nigeria at large. We have had enough shares of junior positions and champions in menial jobs and casual labour in our own land. But we must prepare adequately by being educated and professional to the teeth.

● Street Begging and Philanthropies must be redefined in modern Ibadan. Enough should be enough for able-bodied men and women begging in major motor parks and streets in Ibadan. We should develop old peoples Ibadan Care Scheme. Philanthropists must empower people by sponsoring training and acquiring working tools for trained personnel rather than offering food and little money for idle hands. We must discourage Ibadan indigenes from becoming tools of violence to Politician.

Conclusion

This paper has traced the growth and development of Ibadan from the earliest time till the present. It shows that, the town grew from a military camp in 1829 through the centuries and succeeded the fallen old Oyo as a controller of a significant part of Yorubaland between 1840 and 1893. Its imperial rule was brought to an end through the 1886 treaty which brought the Ekitiparapo wars to an end and the dismemberment of Ibadan Empire. The end of Ibadan imperial rule and its colonisation by the British in 1893 was not, however, the end of Ibadan political relevance in Yorubaland and Nigeria as a whole.

Ibadan has remained a centre of political and administrative seat through the period of colonial rule and thereafter. Today, Ibadan is an urban centre of Yoruba and national politics, economy and social development in modern Nigeria. Sadly enough, the town is gradually losing some of its basic ideals and principles upon which its greatness was based such as recognition of personal ability, unity, sincerity of purpose, religious and ethnic tolerance, cosmopolitanism, and so on. This paper argues that these principles have been abused and jettisoned over the years and the result has been stagnation and redundancy of the erstwhile bubbling city in recent time. This paper makes a case for a return to the founding ideals and principles of Ibadan and concludes that this is capable of bringing about an all-round development to the town and securing a brighter future for the city in the comity of Nigerian modern cities.
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